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2. ||||||||.. 79%  Stevenson JC, International Consensus Group on HRT and Regulatory Issues: HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Hum Reprod; 2006 Jul;21(7):1668-71
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  • [Title] HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
  • HRT has been widely used for the relief of menopausal symptoms and the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
  • However, following the publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Million Women Study (MWS), regulatory authorities issued an urgent safety restriction on HRT use in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis, recommending that it now be considered a second-line treatment.
  • Of the available therapies, none other than HRT has been clearly demonstrated to prevent hip fractures in such women.
  • Thus, HRT should be recommended as first-line treatment for osteoporosis prevention.
  • Potential risks of HRT, such as increased development of breast cancer and increased thromboembolism, have long been known.
  • When given for the correct indications, HRT is of major benefit to many women.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 16556675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. |||||||... 67%  Szeto DP, Griffin KJ, Kimelman D: HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish. Development; 2002 Nov;129(21):5093-101
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  • [Title] HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish.
  • The recently identified zebrafish T-box gene hrT is expressed in the developing heart and in the endothelial cells forming the dorsal aorta.
  • Orthologs of hrT are expressed in cardiovascular cells from Drosophila to mouse, suggesting that the function of hrT is evolutionarily conserved.
  • The role of hrT in cardiovascular development, however, has not thus far been determined in any animal model.
  • Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, we show that zebrafish embryos lacking hrT function have dysmorphic hearts and an absence of blood circulation.
  • Although the early events in heart formation were normal in hrT morphant embryos, subsequently the hearts failed to undergo looping, and late onset defects in chamber morphology and gene expression were observed.
  • In particular, we found that the loss of hrT function led to a dramatic upregulation of tbx5, a gene required for normal heart morphogenesis.
  • Conversely, we show that overexpression of hrT causes a significant downregulation of tbx5, indicating that one key role of hrT is to regulate the levels of tbx5.
  • Secondly, we found that HrT is required to inhibit the expression of the blood lineage markers gata1 and gata2 in the most posterior lateral plate mesoderm.
  • Finally, we show that HrT is required for vasculogenesis in the trunk, leading to similar vascular defects to those observed in midline mutants such as floating head. hrT expression in the vascular progenitors depends upon midline mesoderm, indicating that this expression is one important component of the response to a midline-derived signal during vascular morphogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology. Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics. Hematopoiesis / genetics. Hematopoiesis / physiology. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Mice. Mutation. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12397116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD08725; United States / PHS HHS / / T32 07312
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / T-box transcription factor 5; 0 / TBX20 protein, human; 0 / Tbx20 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 0 / flh protein, zebrafish; 0 / tbx20 protein, zebrafish
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5. ||||||.... 64%  Bain CA, Walters MR, Lees KR, Lumsden MA: The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women. Hum Reprod; 2004 Oct;19(10):2411-4
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  • [Title] The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women.
  • We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of two HRT preparations upon CVR.
  • METHODS: We examined middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MFV), internal carotid artery pulsatility index (PI) and CVR to an i.v. acetazolamide bolus using ultrasound in three groups of post-menopausal women randomized to oral estradiol 1 mg+norethisterone 0.5 mg (group N), estradiol 1 mg+dydrogesterone 5 mg (group D) or placebo (group P).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited (N=12, D=14, P=12); mean (SE) age was 56.7 (4) years.
  • Neither HRT preparation affected CVR [% (SE) change from baseline N +4.2 (11); D +3.8 (5.5); P +4.0 (3.8); all comparisons P = NS].
  • CONCLUSION: HRT did not alter CVR.
  • The reduced PI and increased MFV suggest HRT-induced intracranial vasodilatation, which is more apparent in dydrogesterone recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Dydrogesterone / adverse effects. Estradiol / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Norethindrone / adverse effects. Vasomotor System / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15284214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 90I02KLE8K / Dydrogesterone; T18F433X4S / Norethindrone
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6. ||||||.... 62%  Poli A, Strouthidis NG, Ho TA, Garway-Heath DF: Analysis of HRT images: comparison of reference planes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Sep;49(9):3970-5
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  • [Title] Analysis of HRT images: comparison of reference planes.
  • PURPOSE: The values of Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) stereometric parameters depend on the reference plane (RP), the instability of which results in parameter variability.
  • METHODS: A longitudinal image series of 31 subjects with ocular hypertension who had reproducible visual field loss and 19 normal subjects was analyzed using five different RPs: the standard RP (HRT software version 3.1.2.0), two 320-mum RPs (software ver.
  • Linear regression of RA over time was performed, and the slope and residual SD (RSD) were calculated for each RP.
  • Comparisons between RPs were made by paired t-tests.
  • There was a trend toward faster RA change/time (mean, -0.0123 mm(2)/y) for the standard RP and slower (-0.0095 mm(2)/y) for the experimental RP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the standard RP, the Moorfields RP has significantly lower variability and probably provides a greater facility for discriminating RA change from measurement variability in a longitudinal HRT image series.
  • [MeSH-major] Tomography, Optical / methods. Vision Disorders / physiopathology. Visual Fields / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18469180.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. ||||||.... 62%  Renard JP, Giraud JM: [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jan;29(1):64-73
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  • [Title] [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT].
  • [Transliterated title] Glaucomes. Imagerie de la structure: HRT, GDx et OCT.
  • Confocal scanning laser tomography (HRT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC), and optical coherence tomography provide quantitative data of the retinal fiber layer and optic nerve head.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / diagnosis. Lasers / diagnostic use. Microscopy, Confocal. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • (PMID = 16465127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal fran├žais d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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8. |||||||||. 152%  Teede HJ: Controversies in HRT. Aust Fam Physician; 2002 May;31(5):413-8
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  • [Title] Controversies in HRT.
  • BACKGROUND: Short term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use is well established for menopausal symptom relief.
  • However, the rates and duration of HRT use are increasing in Australia while the benefits and risks of long term HRT remain controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the use of HRT for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis as well as the increased risks of thrombosis and, potentially, breast cancer.
  • Extensive epidemiological data suggests that HRT may protect against CVD and fracture, potentially offering significant long term health benefits to postmenopausal women.
  • However, limited controlled trials focusing on CVD prevention have suggested no benefit from HRT.
  • Also, there is limited controlled fracture end point data to support HRT use for the treatment of osteoporosis.
  • Furthermore, potential benefits of long term HRT use need to be balanced against the risks of use, including increased thrombosis and potentially as suggested from epidemiological studies, increased breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12043543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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9. |||||||||. 147%  Graziottin A: HRT: the woman's perspective. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 1996 Mar;52 Suppl 1:S11-6
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  • [Title] HRT: the woman's perspective.
  • Questionnaire studies in Europe show that women's concerns at the menopause are more related to their self-image and sexual identity than to medical consequences such as osteoporosis or coronary heart disease.
  • Women long for help with menopausal problems, yet are concerned about the potential side effects of HRT and often perceive the information they receive from their doctors to be inadequate.
  • Adverse effects of menopausal estrogen deprivation on sexual and psychological function occur via two main mechanisms.
  • Estrogen replacement in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves both sexual and psychological self-image and function.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / psychology. Menopause / psychology. Patient Satisfaction

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  • (PMID = 8666121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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10. |||||||||. 128%  Skalba P: [HRT in 2006]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):952-5
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  • [Title] [HRT in 2006].
  • [Transliterated title] HRT roku 2006.
  • According to present terminology, the name: hormonal replacement therapy (as the use of ovarian hormones in postmenopausal women) is replaced by the systemic estrogen therapy (ET) and combined combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT).
  • Treatment with estrogen and progestagens in this period of women's life is accepted intervention only when the strict defined conditions of this therapy are maintained.
  • This paper introduces present rules of the use of systemic ET and EPT according to statements of experts who are interested of menopausal women' treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Progestins / therapeutic use. Women's Health
  • [MeSH-minor] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. Humans. Menopause. Terminology as Topic. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16821217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Progestins
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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