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1. Szeto DP, Griffin KJ, Kimelman D: HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish. Development; 2002 Nov;129(21):5093-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish.
  • The recently identified zebrafish T-box gene hrT is expressed in the developing heart and in the endothelial cells forming the dorsal aorta.
  • Orthologs of hrT are expressed in cardiovascular cells from Drosophila to mouse, suggesting that the function of hrT is evolutionarily conserved.
  • The role of hrT in cardiovascular development, however, has not thus far been determined in any animal model.
  • Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, we show that zebrafish embryos lacking hrT function have dysmorphic hearts and an absence of blood circulation.
  • Although the early events in heart formation were normal in hrT morphant embryos, subsequently the hearts failed to undergo looping, and late onset defects in chamber morphology and gene expression were observed.
  • In particular, we found that the loss of hrT function led to a dramatic upregulation of tbx5, a gene required for normal heart morphogenesis.
  • Conversely, we show that overexpression of hrT causes a significant downregulation of tbx5, indicating that one key role of hrT is to regulate the levels of tbx5.
  • Secondly, we found that HrT is required to inhibit the expression of the blood lineage markers gata1 and gata2 in the most posterior lateral plate mesoderm.
  • Finally, we show that HrT is required for vasculogenesis in the trunk, leading to similar vascular defects to those observed in midline mutants such as floating head. hrT expression in the vascular progenitors depends upon midline mesoderm, indicating that this expression is one important component of the response to a midline-derived signal during vascular morphogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology. Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics. Hematopoiesis / genetics. Hematopoiesis / physiology. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Mice. Mutation. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12397116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD08725; United States / PHS HHS / / T32 07312
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / T-box transcription factor 5; 0 / TBX20 protein, human; 0 / Tbx20 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 0 / flh protein, zebrafish; 0 / tbx20 protein, zebrafish
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2. Maslin JS, Mansouri K, Dorairaj SK: HRT for the Diagnosis and Detection of Glaucoma Progression. Open Ophthalmol J; 2015;9:58-67

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRT for the Diagnosis and Detection of Glaucoma Progression.
  • Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy through the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) provides a rapid, safe, noncontact, and noninvasive imaging of the optic disc in three-dimensions, and provides precise detailed information about the optic disc beyond that which the clinical exam can measure.
  • The HRT I was developed for research purposes only and was not used clinically.
  • The HRT II was developed to be user-friendly, more rapid, and was used as an adjunct to clinical examination in the detection and progression of glaucoma.
  • One of the main pitfalls of the HRT II was that it was operator-dependent.
  • The HRT III was developed to be operator-independent.
  • Numerous studies have compared these two methods of analysis, with the conclusion that the Glaucoma Probability Score provides a higher sensitivity and a lower specificity than the Moorsfield Regression Analysis, which may indicate that it has potential as a screening test for glaucoma.
  • However, there is no consensus on the use of the Glaucoma Probability Score as a screening test for glaucoma.
  • While HRT data may be useful as a clinical adjunct in the screening and diagnosis of glaucoma, it should ultimately only be used to support clinical examination.

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  • (PMID = 26069518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-3641
  • [Journal-full-title] The open ophthalmology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Ophthalmol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4460217
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Glaucoma / Heidelberg retina tomograph / retinal nerve fiber layer / topographic change analysis
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3. Compston JE: The risks and benefits of HRT. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 2004 Jun;4(2):187-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The risks and benefits of HRT.
  • For many years hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was regarded as the gold standard for treatment of osteoporosis.
  • The current consensus is that HRT is no longer regarded as a front-line option for prevention of osteoporotic fractures and that its use for this purpose should be restricted to women with osteoporosis who have menopausal symptoms and to older women who are intolerant of other therapies and/or express a strong preference for HRT despite being informed about potential adverse effects.
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its beneficial skeletal effects remain a major area of research that has important implications for the development of novel therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15615123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1108-7161
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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4. Persico N, Mancini F, Artini PG, de Iaco P, Volpe A, de Aloysio D, Battaglia C: Transdermal HRT and Doppler findings in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Oct;26(5):546-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transdermal HRT and Doppler findings in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on plasma viscosity, serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and vascular impedance in the uterine, bladder wall, internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • Before starting HRT and after 6 months of therapy, the patients underwent: transvaginal ultrasonographic examination of the pelvic organs; Doppler examination of the blood flow velocities in the uterine, bladder wall, internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries; and analysis of plasma viscosity and plasma TXB2.
  • RESULTS: After 6 months of HRT plasma viscosity had decreased in both groups (mean reduction in Group 1, (14+/-1)%, P=0.005; mean reduction in Group 2, (10+/-1)%, P=0.005) as had the TXB2 levels (mean reduction in Group 1, (93+/-2)%, P<0.001; mean reduction in Group 2, (92+/-3)%, P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that transdermal HRT is effective in reducing plasma viscosity, TXB2 levels and vascular impedance in the peripheral and central vessels both in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Hypertension / ultrasonography. Postmenopause / blood. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 16184506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 54397-85-2 / Thromboxane B2; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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5. Renard JP, Giraud JM: [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jan;29(1):64-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT].
  • [Transliterated title] Glaucomes. Imagerie de la structure: HRT, GDx et OCT.
  • Confocal scanning laser tomography (HRT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC), and optical coherence tomography provide quantitative data of the retinal fiber layer and optic nerve head.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / diagnosis. Lasers. Microscopy, Confocal. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • (PMID = 16465127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal franc╠žais d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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6. Sismondi P, Biglia N, Giai M, Ponzone R, Roagna R, Sgro L, Campagnoli C: HRT, breast and endometrial cancers: strategies and intervention options. Maturitas; 1999 Aug 16;32(3):131-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRT, breast and endometrial cancers: strategies and intervention options.
  • The demand for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) by women who enter the menopause is rapidly increasing in all developed countries.
  • The concern that HRT may enhance morbidity and mortality from malignant diseases still limits the widespread adoption of hormonal treatments.
  • Overall, epidemiological data on cancer incidence and HRT are reassuring, although long-term or inappropriate therapies may slightly increase the risk of developing malignant diseases.
  • Many commercial hormonal compounds are currently available and the safest HRT regimen with regard to cancer risk must be identified.
  • It is equally important that the best strategies for breast and endometrial surveillance in women commencing HRT be outlined, bearing in mind that the diffusion of hormonal therapies may be halted by unnecessary medical interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10515669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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7. Griffiths F: Women's control and choice regarding HRT. Soc Sci Med; 1999 Aug;49(4):469-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Women's control and choice regarding HRT.
  • The promotion and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the focus of much medical activity and a social phenomenon studied by sociology.
  • The decision to prescribe HRT by a doctor may be a response to a woman's distress and is a decision involving uncertainty about risks and benefits.
  • Sociological analysis has seen the promotion and use of HRT as medicalisation of the menopause.
  • Through individual interviews and focus groups, this study hears from women how they approach the decision to take HRT or not, and what influences them.
  • The interviews reveal how women who dislike medication in general may consider HRT, influenced by fear of ill health which may be enhanced by the experience of illness in the family and by medical advice.
  • For the women the media and their social contacts were the major sources of information about HRT.
  • In the focus groups the women explored the control they had over the choice to take HRT and what limited this control and they explored the uncertainties and complexities of the decision to take HRT or not.
  • This study brings lay women's voices to the debate about the use and promotion of HRT.
  • The results are also used to test the limits of the theory of medicalisation and to inform doctors of the issues women may bring to a consultation about HRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude to Health. Decision Making. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / psychology. Patient Participation

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  • (PMID = 10414807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-9536
  • [Journal-full-title] Social science & medicine (1982)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Soc Sci Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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8. Conlon O, McKinney K: HRT: have we changed? Ir J Med Sci; 2006 Oct-Dec;175(4):58-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRT: have we changed?
  • BACKGROUND: In recent years, medical controversy, has surrounded the prescribing of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
  • AIM: This study aimed to establish whether prescribing of HRT in Northern Ireland has changed and what the current prescribing patterns are.
  • RESULTS: Overall 54% of respondents indicated that they had changed their prescribing practice on HRT in the past year.
  • The primary indication for prescribing HRT was vasomotor symptoms (93%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: More than half of all doctors who responded had changed their prescribing practices on HRT, yet some respondents still preferred more traditional prescribing.
  • [MeSH-major] Attitude of Health Personnel. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / trends. Practice Patterns, Physicians'
  • [MeSH-minor] Complementary Therapies. Female. Humans. Northern Ireland. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 17312831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-1265
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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9. Maas AH, van der Graaf Y, van der Schouw YT, Grobbee DE: HRT and heart disease: problems and prospects. Maturitas; 2004 Apr 15;47(4):255-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRT and heart disease: problems and prospects.
  • The divergent findings of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) from observational and randomized clinical studies are summarized and reasons for the different results are postulated.
  • Chronic use of HRT since menopause has no harmful effects on CHD event rate, while the initiation of therapy after a recent cardiovascular event causes an early increase in recurrent CHD events.
  • Once endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease has developed, the starting of HRT promotes plaque instability, vascular inflammation and prothrombotic effects.
  • The timing of HRT use since menopause is therefore crucial in the effectiveness and safety of HRT on the vascular system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control. Estrogen Replacement Therapy

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  • (PMID = 15063476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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10. Barlow DH: HRT and the risk of deep vein thrombosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 1997 Oct;59 Suppl 1:S29-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HRT and the risk of deep vein thrombosis.
  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has long been recognized as a risk of oral contraceptive use in women, but until recently hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was not thought to be associated with a similar risk; the epidemiological literature having been reassuring.
  • The recent publication of four independent epidemiological studies has changed our perspective on VTE risk on HRT.
  • These studies suggest that the risk of VTE may be increased by up to three-fold during HRT.
  • However, the absolute risk remains low at approximately one occurrence in 5000 woman-years and appears greatest in the early years of HRT use.
  • However, given that mortality from VTE is low, it seems unlikely that these new findings will substantially change the overall balance of benefits and risks associated with long-term HRT.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Pulmonary Embolism / chemically induced. Thrombophlebitis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 9386213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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