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1. Compston JE: The risks and benefits of HRT. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 2004 Jun;4(2):187-90
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  • [Title] The risks and benefits of HRT.
  • For many years hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was regarded as the gold standard for treatment of osteoporosis.
  • The current consensus is that HRT is no longer regarded as a front-line option for prevention of osteoporotic fractures and that its use for this purpose should be restricted to women with osteoporosis who have menopausal symptoms and to older women who are intolerant of other therapies and/or express a strong preference for HRT despite being informed about potential adverse effects.
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its beneficial skeletal effects remain a major area of research that has important implications for the development of novel therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15615123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1108-7161
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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2. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM: Agreement between the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) stereometric parameters estimated using HRT-I and HRT-II. Optom Vis Sci; 2011 Jan;88(1):140-9
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  • [Title] Agreement between the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) stereometric parameters estimated using HRT-I and HRT-II.
  • PURPOSE: To assess agreement between Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT)-I and HRT-II stereometric parameters and to determine whether parabolic error correction (PEC) to the topographies improves agreement.
  • METHODS: University of California San Diego Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study participants with two HRT-II examinations (n = 380) or one HRT-I and one HRT-II examinations (n = 344) acquired on the same day were included.
  • From the group of 380 eyes, 200 eyes were randomly selected to estimate the repeatability coefficients of HRT-II rim area and volume, cup area and volume, and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters (HRT-II control group), and the remaining 180 eyes were used to assess agreement between two HRT-II examinations (HRT-II study group).
  • Agreement between stereometric parameters of HRT-I and HRT-II examinations (HRT-I vs. HRT-II study group) were assessed with (1) no PEC, (2) HRT PEC, and (3) a modified PEC.
  • RESULTS: In the HRT-II study group, agreement between stereometric parameters was good, with no statistically significant biases.
  • In the HRT-I vs. HRT-II study group, there was a small statistically significant bias between the stereometric parameters, but all differences were within CLA for ≥95% of participants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between HRT-I and HRT-II stereometric parameters was good, and PEC did not improve agreement.
  • These results suggest that HRT-I and HRT-II examinations can be used interchangeably to detect changes in stereometric parameters over time.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / diagnosis. Microscopy, Confocal. Nerve Fibers / pathology. Ophthalmoscopes. Optic Disk / pathology. Retina / pathology. Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 21037499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY11008; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K99 EY020518; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008-14; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008-15
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS252970; NLM/ PMC3014384
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3. Stevenson JC, International Consensus Group on HRT and Regulatory Issues: HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Hum Reprod; 2006 Jul;21(7):1668-71
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  • [Title] HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
  • HRT has been widely used for the relief of menopausal symptoms and the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
  • However, following the publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Million Women Study (MWS), regulatory authorities issued an urgent safety restriction on HRT use in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis, recommending that it now be considered a second-line treatment.
  • Of the available therapies, none other than HRT has been clearly demonstrated to prevent hip fractures in such women.
  • Thus, HRT should be recommended as first-line treatment for osteoporosis prevention.
  • Potential risks of HRT, such as increased development of breast cancer and increased thromboembolism, have long been known.
  • When given for the correct indications, HRT is of major benefit to many women.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 16556675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Szeto DP, Griffin KJ, Kimelman D: HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish. Development; 2002 Nov;129(21):5093-101
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  • [Title] HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish.
  • The recently identified zebrafish T-box gene hrT is expressed in the developing heart and in the endothelial cells forming the dorsal aorta.
  • Orthologs of hrT are expressed in cardiovascular cells from Drosophila to mouse, suggesting that the function of hrT is evolutionarily conserved.
  • The role of hrT in cardiovascular development, however, has not thus far been determined in any animal model.
  • Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, we show that zebrafish embryos lacking hrT function have dysmorphic hearts and an absence of blood circulation.
  • Although the early events in heart formation were normal in hrT morphant embryos, subsequently the hearts failed to undergo looping, and late onset defects in chamber morphology and gene expression were observed.
  • In particular, we found that the loss of hrT function led to a dramatic upregulation of tbx5, a gene required for normal heart morphogenesis.
  • Conversely, we show that overexpression of hrT causes a significant downregulation of tbx5, indicating that one key role of hrT is to regulate the levels of tbx5.
  • Secondly, we found that HrT is required to inhibit the expression of the blood lineage markers gata1 and gata2 in the most posterior lateral plate mesoderm.
  • Finally, we show that HrT is required for vasculogenesis in the trunk, leading to similar vascular defects to those observed in midline mutants such as floating head. hrT expression in the vascular progenitors depends upon midline mesoderm, indicating that this expression is one important component of the response to a midline-derived signal during vascular morphogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology. Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics. Hematopoiesis / genetics. Hematopoiesis / physiology. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Mice. Mutation. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12397116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD08725; United States / PHS HHS / / T32 07312
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / T-box transcription factor 5; 0 / TBX20 protein, human; 0 / Tbx20 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 0 / flh protein, zebrafish; 0 / tbx20 protein, zebrafish
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5. Renard JP, Giraud JM: [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2006 Jan;29(1):64-73
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  • [Title] [Glaucoma - structural imagery: HRT, GDX, OCT].
  • [Transliterated title] Glaucomes. Imagerie de la structure: HRT, GDx et OCT.
  • Confocal scanning laser tomography (HRT), scanning laser polarimetry (GDx VCC), and optical coherence tomography provide quantitative data of the retinal fiber layer and optic nerve head.
  • [MeSH-major] Glaucoma / diagnosis. Lasers / diagnostic use. Microscopy, Confocal. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • (PMID = 16465127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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6. Persico N, Mancini F, Artini PG, de Iaco P, Volpe A, de Aloysio D, Battaglia C: Transdermal HRT and Doppler findings in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Oct;26(5):546-51
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  • [Title] Transdermal HRT and Doppler findings in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of transdermal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on plasma viscosity, serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and vascular impedance in the uterine, bladder wall, internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • Before starting HRT and after 6 months of therapy, the patients underwent: transvaginal ultrasonographic examination of the pelvic organs; Doppler examination of the blood flow velocities in the uterine, bladder wall, internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries; and analysis of plasma viscosity and plasma TXB2.
  • RESULTS: After 6 months of HRT plasma viscosity had decreased in both groups (mean reduction in Group 1, (14+/-1)%, P=0.005; mean reduction in Group 2, (10+/-1)%, P=0.005) as had the TXB2 levels (mean reduction in Group 1, (93+/-2)%, P<0.001; mean reduction in Group 2, (92+/-3)%, P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that transdermal HRT is effective in reducing plasma viscosity, TXB2 levels and vascular impedance in the peripheral and central vessels both in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Hypertension / ultrasonography. Postmenopause / blood. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 ISUOG.
  • (PMID = 16184506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7692
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 54397-85-2 / Thromboxane B2; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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7. Bain CA, Walters MR, Lees KR, Lumsden MA: The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women. Hum Reprod; 2004 Oct;19(10):2411-4
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  • [Title] The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women.
  • We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of two HRT preparations upon CVR.
  • METHODS: We examined middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MFV), internal carotid artery pulsatility index (PI) and CVR to an i.v. acetazolamide bolus using ultrasound in three groups of post-menopausal women randomized to oral estradiol 1 mg+norethisterone 0.5 mg (group N), estradiol 1 mg+dydrogesterone 5 mg (group D) or placebo (group P).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited (N=12, D=14, P=12); mean (SE) age was 56.7 (4) years.
  • Neither HRT preparation affected CVR [% (SE) change from baseline N +4.2 (11); D +3.8 (5.5); P +4.0 (3.8); all comparisons P = NS].
  • CONCLUSION: HRT did not alter CVR.
  • The reduced PI and increased MFV suggest HRT-induced intracranial vasodilatation, which is more apparent in dydrogesterone recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Dydrogesterone / adverse effects. Estradiol / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Norethindrone / adverse effects. Vasomotor System / drug effects


8. 'Hrt Stopped': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review OC; ;HrtStopped:709955086. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2015/11/11; updates online.
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  • [Title] 'Hrt Stopped': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'hrt stopped'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 3 publications, and group two 114 publications.
  • Here is the first one.
  • Stirling A et al: Will women stop HRT prior to mammographic screening.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2015 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 709955086.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review OC
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. 'Hrt Stopping': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review OC; ;HrtStopping:709955007. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2015/10/11; updates online.
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  • [Title] 'Hrt Stopping': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'hrt stopping'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 2 publications, and group two 81 publications.
  • Here is the first one.
  • Stirling A et al: Will women stop HRT prior to mammographic screening.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2015 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 709955007.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review OC
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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10. Teede HJ: Controversies in HRT. Aust Fam Physician; 2002 May;31(5):413-8
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  • [Title] Controversies in HRT.
  • BACKGROUND: Short term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use is well established for menopausal symptom relief.
  • However, the rates and duration of HRT use are increasing in Australia while the benefits and risks of long term HRT remain controversial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence for the use of HRT for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis as well as the increased risks of thrombosis and, potentially, breast cancer.
  • Extensive epidemiological data suggests that HRT may protect against CVD and fracture, potentially offering significant long term health benefits to postmenopausal women.
  • However, limited controlled trials focusing on CVD prevention have suggested no benefit from HRT.
  • Also, there is limited controlled fracture end point data to support HRT use for the treatment of osteoporosis.
  • Furthermore, potential benefits of long term HRT use need to be balanced against the risks of use, including increased thrombosis and potentially as suggested from epidemiological studies, increased breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12043543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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