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1. Compston JE: The risks and benefits of HRT. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact; 2004 Jun;4(2):187-90
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  • [Title] The risks and benefits of HRT.
  • For many years hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was regarded as the gold standard for treatment of osteoporosis.
  • The current consensus is that HRT is no longer regarded as a front-line option for prevention of osteoporotic fractures and that its use for this purpose should be restricted to women with osteoporosis who have menopausal symptoms and to older women who are intolerant of other therapies and/or express a strong preference for HRT despite being informed about potential adverse effects.
  • Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its beneficial skeletal effects remain a major area of research that has important implications for the development of novel therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15615123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1108-7161
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of musculoskeletal & neuronal interactions
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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2. Balasubramanian M, Bowd C, Weinreb RN, Zangwill LM: Agreement between the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) stereometric parameters estimated using HRT-I and HRT-II. Optom Vis Sci; 2011 Jan;88(1):140-9
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  • [Title] Agreement between the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) stereometric parameters estimated using HRT-I and HRT-II.
  • PURPOSE: To assess agreement between Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT)-I and HRT-II stereometric parameters and to determine whether parabolic error correction (PEC) to the topographies improves agreement.
  • METHODS: University of California San Diego Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study participants with two HRT-II examinations (n = 380) or one HRT-I and one HRT-II examinations (n = 344) acquired on the same day were included.
  • From the group of 380 eyes, 200 eyes were randomly selected to estimate the repeatability coefficients of HRT-II rim area and volume, cup area and volume, and mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness parameters (HRT-II control group), and the remaining 180 eyes were used to assess agreement between two HRT-II examinations (HRT-II study group).
  • Agreement between stereometric parameters of HRT-I and HRT-II examinations (HRT-I vs. HRT-II study group) were assessed with (1) no PEC, (2) HRT PEC, and (3) a modified PEC.
  • RESULTS: In the HRT-II study group, agreement between stereometric parameters was good, with no statistically significant biases.
  • In the HRT-I vs. HRT-II study group, there was a small statistically significant bias between the stereometric parameters, but all differences were within CLA for ≥95% of participants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between HRT-I and HRT-II stereometric parameters was good, and PEC did not improve agreement.
  • These results suggest that HRT-I and HRT-II examinations can be used interchangeably to detect changes in stereometric parameters over time.

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  • (PMID = 21037499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optom Vis Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011008-15; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008-15; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY011008-14; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / K99 EY020518; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY11008; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY011008-14
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS252970; NLM/ PMC3014384
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3. Stevenson JC, International Consensus Group on HRT and Regulatory Issues: HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Hum Reprod; 2006 Jul;21(7):1668-71
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  • [Title] HRT, osteoporosis and regulatory authorities Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?
  • HRT has been widely used for the relief of menopausal symptoms and the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis.
  • However, following the publication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the Million Women Study (MWS), regulatory authorities issued an urgent safety restriction on HRT use in preventing post-menopausal osteoporosis, recommending that it now be considered a second-line treatment.
  • Of the available therapies, none other than HRT has been clearly demonstrated to prevent hip fractures in such women.
  • Thus, HRT should be recommended as first-line treatment for osteoporosis prevention.
  • Potential risks of HRT, such as increased development of breast cancer and increased thromboembolism, have long been known.
  • When given for the correct indications, HRT is of major benefit to many women.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 16556675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Szeto DP, Griffin KJ, Kimelman D: HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish. Development; 2002 Nov;129(21):5093-101
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  • [Title] HrT is required for cardiovascular development in zebrafish.
  • The recently identified zebrafish T-box gene hrT is expressed in the developing heart and in the endothelial cells forming the dorsal aorta.
  • Orthologs of hrT are expressed in cardiovascular cells from Drosophila to mouse, suggesting that the function of hrT is evolutionarily conserved.
  • The role of hrT in cardiovascular development, however, has not thus far been determined in any animal model.
  • Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides, we show that zebrafish embryos lacking hrT function have dysmorphic hearts and an absence of blood circulation.
  • Although the early events in heart formation were normal in hrT morphant embryos, subsequently the hearts failed to undergo looping, and late onset defects in chamber morphology and gene expression were observed.
  • In particular, we found that the loss of hrT function led to a dramatic upregulation of tbx5, a gene required for normal heart morphogenesis.
  • Conversely, we show that overexpression of hrT causes a significant downregulation of tbx5, indicating that one key role of hrT is to regulate the levels of tbx5.
  • Secondly, we found that HrT is required to inhibit the expression of the blood lineage markers gata1 and gata2 in the most posterior lateral plate mesoderm.
  • Finally, we show that HrT is required for vasculogenesis in the trunk, leading to similar vascular defects to those observed in midline mutants such as floating head. hrT expression in the vascular progenitors depends upon midline mesoderm, indicating that this expression is one important component of the response to a midline-derived signal during vascular morphogenesis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Heart Defects, Congenital / embryology. Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics. Hematopoiesis / genetics. Hematopoiesis / physiology. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Homeodomain Proteins / physiology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Mice. Mutation. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / genetics. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Transcription Factors / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12397116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-1991
  • [Journal-full-title] Development (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Development
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32 HD08725; United States / PHS HHS / / T32 07312
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / T-box transcription factor 5; 0 / TBX20 protein, human; 0 / Tbx20 protein, mouse; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Zebrafish Proteins; 0 / flh protein, zebrafish; 0 / tbx20 protein, zebrafish
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5. Maslin JS, Mansouri K, Dorairaj SK: HRT for the Diagnosis and Detection of Glaucoma Progression. Open Ophthalmol J; 2015;9:58-67
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  • [Title] HRT for the Diagnosis and Detection of Glaucoma Progression.
  • Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy through the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) provides a rapid, safe, noncontact, and noninvasive imaging of the optic disc in three-dimensions, and provides precise detailed information about the optic disc beyond that which the clinical exam can measure.
  • The HRT I was developed for research purposes only and was not used clinically.
  • The HRT II was developed to be user-friendly, more rapid, and was used as an adjunct to clinical examination in the detection and progression of glaucoma.
  • One of the main pitfalls of the HRT II was that it was operator-dependent.
  • The HRT III was developed to be operator-independent.
  • Numerous studies have compared these two methods of analysis, with the conclusion that the Glaucoma Probability Score provides a higher sensitivity and a lower specificity than the Moorsfield Regression Analysis, which may indicate that it has potential as a screening test for glaucoma.
  • However, there is no consensus on the use of the Glaucoma Probability Score as a screening test for glaucoma.
  • While HRT data may be useful as a clinical adjunct in the screening and diagnosis of glaucoma, it should ultimately only be used to support clinical examination.

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  • (PMID = 26069518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-3641
  • [Journal-full-title] The open ophthalmology journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Ophthalmol J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4460217
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Glaucoma / Heidelberg retina tomograph / retinal nerve fiber layer / topographic change analysis
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6. Bain CA, Walters MR, Lees KR, Lumsden MA: The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women. Hum Reprod; 2004 Oct;19(10):2411-4
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  • [Title] The effect of HRT on cerebral haemodynamics and cerebral vasomotor reactivity in post-menopausal women.
  • We performed a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of two HRT preparations upon CVR.
  • METHODS: We examined middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MFV), internal carotid artery pulsatility index (PI) and CVR to an i.v. acetazolamide bolus using ultrasound in three groups of post-menopausal women randomized to oral estradiol 1 mg+norethisterone 0.5 mg (group N), estradiol 1 mg+dydrogesterone 5 mg (group D) or placebo (group P).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited (N=12, D=14, P=12); mean (SE) age was 56.7 (4) years.
  • Neither HRT preparation affected CVR [% (SE) change from baseline N +4.2 (11); D +3.8 (5.5); P +4.0 (3.8); all comparisons P = NS].
  • CONCLUSION: HRT did not alter CVR.
  • The reduced PI and increased MFV suggest HRT-induced intracranial vasodilatation, which is more apparent in dydrogesterone recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects. Dydrogesterone / adverse effects. Estradiol / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Norethindrone / adverse effects. Vasomotor System / drug effects


7. Graziottin A: HRT: the woman's perspective. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 1996 Mar;52 Suppl 1:S11-6
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  • [Title] HRT: the woman's perspective.
  • Questionnaire studies in Europe show that women's concerns at the menopause are more related to their self-image and sexual identity than to medical consequences such as osteoporosis or coronary heart disease.
  • Women long for help with menopausal problems, yet are concerned about the potential side effects of HRT and often perceive the information they receive from their doctors to be inadequate.
  • Adverse effects of menopausal estrogen deprivation on sexual and psychological function occur via two main mechanisms.
  • Estrogen replacement in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) improves both sexual and psychological self-image and function.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy / psychology. Menopause / psychology. Patient Satisfaction

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  • (PMID = 8666121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
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8. Skalba P: [HRT in 2006]. Endokrynol Pol; 2005 Nov-Dec;56(6):952-5
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  • [Title] [HRT in 2006].
  • [Transliterated title] HRT roku 2006.
  • According to present terminology, the name: hormonal replacement therapy (as the use of ovarian hormones in postmenopausal women) is replaced by the systemic estrogen therapy (ET) and combined combined estrogen-progestogen therapy (EPT).
  • Treatment with estrogen and progestagens in this period of women's life is accepted intervention only when the strict defined conditions of this therapy are maintained.
  • This paper introduces present rules of the use of systemic ET and EPT according to statements of experts who are interested of menopausal women' treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens / therapeutic use. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Progestins / therapeutic use. Women's Health
  • [MeSH-minor] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Female. Humans. Menopause. Terminology as Topic. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16821217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Progestins
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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9. Barlow DH: HRT and osteoporosis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol; 1993 Oct;7(3):535-48
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  • [Title] HRT and osteoporosis.
  • Hormone replacement therapy is well documented to reduce the increased bone turnover induced by oestrogen deficiency and, as a result, it prevents bone loss after the menopause.
  • There is a dose threshold effect, the duration of therapy influences the degree of benefit and, after the cessation of HRT, postmenopausal bone loss resumes.
  • Women take HRT for many reasons, most for relief of menopausal symptoms, and 10-20% show poor compliance.
  • The nature of HRT preparations is discussed and the current understanding of benefits and risks described.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Replacement Therapy. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 8293488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-3579
  • [Journal-full-title] Baillière's clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Baillieres Clin Rheumatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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10. Skoog I, Gustafson D: HRT and dementia. J Epidemiol Biostat; 1999;4(3):227-51; discussion 252
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  • [Title] HRT and dementia.
  • The role of HRT and/or oestrogens in the aetiology, progression and prevention of neurodegenerative disorders is unclear.
  • The following is a presentation of data on the role of oestrogens in the two most common dementia syndromes Alzheimer's Disease and vascular dementia.
  • Observational studies give some support to the hypothesis that HRT may be protective for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, but the inherited methodological problems in these studies preclude any conclusions.
  • The treatment trials published thus far have methodological problems that prohibit definite conclusions on the relationship between HRT and cognitive decline and dementia.
  • [MeSH-major] Alzheimer Disease / prevention & control. Dementia, Vascular / prevention & control. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 10695961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-5229
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology and biostatistics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol Biostat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 198
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