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1. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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2. Rebellato A, Grillo A, Dassie F, Sonino N, Maffei P, Martini C, Paoletta A, Fabris B, Carretta R, Fallo F: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine; 2014 Nov;47(2):557-63
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  • Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors.
  • It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Pressure / physiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Hypertension / physiopathology


3. Szabó DR, Luconi M, Szabó PM, Tóth M, Szücs N, Horányi J, Nagy Z, Mannelli M, Patócs A, Rácz K, Igaz P: Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors. Lab Invest; 2014 Mar;94(3):331-9
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  • [Title] Analysis of circulating microRNAs in adrenocortical tumors.
  • Differential diagnosis of adrenocortical adenoma (ACA) and carcinoma is of pivotal clinical relevance, as the prognosis and clinical management of benign and malignant adrenocortical tumors (ACTs) is entirely different.
  • In contrast, of the selected eight miRNAs reported in the literature as differentially expressed in ACT tissues, five (hsa-miR-100, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-184, hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-483-5p) showed a statistically significant overexpression in adrenocortical cancer vs adenoma when normalized on hsa-miR-16 as a reference gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / blood. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / genetics. Adrenocortical Adenoma / blood. Adrenocortical Adenoma / genetics. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / blood. MicroRNAs / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / blood. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 24336071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0307
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MIRN100 microRNA, human; 0 / MIRN184 microRNA, human; 0 / MIRN210 microRNA, human; 0 / MIRN483 microRNA, human; 0 / MIrn181 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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4. Palmieri S, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Eller-Vainicher C, Cairoli E, Zhukouskaya VV, Beck-Peccoz P, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: GH secretion reserve in subclinical hypercortisolism. Pituitary; 2014 Oct;17(5):470-6
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  • METHODS: We enrolled 24 patients with adrenal adenomas, 12 with SH (SH+, 8 females, 58.3 ± 6.5 years) and 12 without SH (SH-; 11 females, 61.8 ± 10.6 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 24096994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
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5. Scholl UI, Nelson-Williams C, Yue P, Grekin R, Wyatt RJ, Dillon MJ, Couch R, Hammer LK, Harley FL, Farhi A, Wang WH, Lifton RP: Hypertension with or without adrenal hyperplasia due to different inherited mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2012 Feb 14;109(7):2533-8
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  • [Title] Hypertension with or without adrenal hyperplasia due to different inherited mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5.
  • We recently implicated two recurrent somatic mutations in an adrenal potassium channel, KCNJ5, as a cause of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs) and one inherited KCNJ5 mutation in a Mendelian form of early severe hypertension with massive adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The mutations identified all altered the channel selectivity filter, producing increased Na(+) conductance and membrane depolarization, the signal for aldosterone production and proliferation of adrenal glomerulosa cells.
  • Surprisingly, electrophysiology of channels expressed in 293T cells demonstrated that KCNJ5(G151E) was the more extreme mutation, producing a much larger Na(+) conductance than KCNJ5(G151R), resulting in rapid Na(+)-dependent cell lethality.
  • We infer that this increased lethality limits adrenocortical cell mass and the severity of aldosteronism in vivo, accounting for the milder phenotype among these patients.
  • These findings demonstrate striking variations in phenotypes and clinical outcome resulting from different mutations of the same amino acid in KCNJ5 and have implications for the diagnosis and pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism with and without adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / genetics. G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels / genetics. Hypertension / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 22308486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK079310; United States / PHS HHS / / NIHDK54983; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels; 0 / KCNJ5 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3289329
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6. Petersenn S, Richter PA, Broemel T, Ritter CO, Deutschbein T, Beil FU, Allolio B, Fassnacht M, German ACC Study Group: Computed tomography criteria for discrimination of adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas: analysis of the German ACC registry. Eur J Endocrinol; 2015 Apr;172(4):415-22
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  • [Title] Computed tomography criteria for discrimination of adrenal adenomas and adrenocortical carcinomas: analysis of the German ACC registry.
  • OBJECTIVE: Thresholds of 2-20 hounsfield units (HU) in unenhanced computed tomography (CT) are suggested to discriminate benign adrenal tumors (BATs) from malignant adrenal tumors.
  • However, these studies included only low numbers of adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs).
  • This study defines a HU threshold by inclusion of a large cohort of ACCs.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective, blinded, comparative analysis of CT scans from 51 patients with ACCs (30 females, median age 49 years) and 25 patients with BATs (12 females, median age 64 years) diagnosed during the period of 2005-2010 was performed.
  • However, to avoid misdiagnosing an ACC as benign, a threshold of 13 should be used.

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  • [Copyright] © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.
  • (PMID = 25599706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Qin HY, Sun H, Wang X, Bai R, Li Y, Zhao J: Correlation between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in adrenal tumors. PLoS One; 2013;8(11):e79911
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  • [Title] Correlation between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in adrenal tumors.
  • We evaluated the correlation between computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters and markers of angiogenesis in adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas to determine if perfusion CT can be used to distinguish between them.
  • Thirty-four patients with pathologically-confirmed adrenal tumors (17 adenomas, 17 non-adenomas) received CT perfusion imaging before surgery.
  • The median BV was significantly higher in adenomas than in non-adenomas [12.3 ml/100 g, inter-quartile range (IQR): 10.4 to 16.5 ml/100 g vs. 8.8 ml/100 g, IQR: 3.3 to 9.4 ml/100 g, p=0.001].
  • Differences in BF, MTT, and PS parameter values between adenomas and non-adenomas were not significant (p>0.05).
  • The mean MVD was significantly higher in adenomas compared to non-adenomas (98.5 ± 28.5 vs. 53.5 ± 27.0, p<0.0001).
  • Adenomas also expressed significantly higher median VEGF than non-adenomas (65%, IQR: 50 to 79% vs. 45%, IQR: 35 to 67%, p=0.02).
  • A moderately strong correlation between BF and VEGF (r=0.53, p=0.03) and between BV and MVD among adenomas (r=0.57, p=0.02) exist.
  • Morphology, MVD, and VEGF expression in adenomas differ significantly from non-adenomas.
  • Of the CT perfusion parameters examined, both BF and BV correlate with MVD, but only BF correlates with VEGF, and only in adenomas.
  • The significant difference in BV suggests that BV may be used to differentiate adenomas from non-adenomas.
  • However, the small difference in BV shows that it may only be possible to use BV to identify adenomas vs. non-adenomas at extreme BV values.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Microvessels / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 24260316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3832505
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8. Reimondo G, Allasino B, Coletta M, Pia A, Peraga G, Zaggia B, Massaglia C, Paccotti P, Terzolo M: Evaluation of Midnight Salivary Cortisol as a Predictor Factor for Common Carotid Arteries Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Clinically Inapparent Adrenal Adenomas. Int J Endocrinol; 2015;2015:674734
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  • [Title] Evaluation of Midnight Salivary Cortisol as a Predictor Factor for Common Carotid Arteries Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Clinically Inapparent Adrenal Adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 26074962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8337
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4446512
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9. Guo YW, Hwu CM, Won JG, Chu CH, Lin LY: A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep; 2016;2016:150118
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  • [Title] A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) scintigraphy.
  • We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29.
  • The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • LEARNING POINTS: The clinical presentation of Cushing' syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features.The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion.Both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 27252858.001).
  • [ISSN] 2052-0573
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4870494
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10. Trementino L, Appolloni G, Ceccoli L, Marcelli G, Concettoni C, Boscaro M, Arnaldi G: Bone complications in patients with Cushing's syndrome: looking for clinical, biochemical, and genetic determinants. Osteoporos Int; 2014 Mar;25(3):913-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We investigate the role of gender, disease etiology, duration, and degree of hypercortisolism as well as the impact of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) polymorphisms on the development of bone complications in CS.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with active CS (38 Cushing's disease and 14 with cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma) were genotyped for GR polymorphisms (BclI, N363S, ER22/23EK, and A3669G).
  • RESULTS: No differences were found in bone complications according to gender, disease etiology, and genetic variants distribution.
  • Disease duration correlated with the presence of peripheral fractures (r = 0.36, p = 0.04).
  • CONCLUSIONS: While GR gene variants as well as gender and disease etiology seem not to play a role, the degree and duration of hypercortisolism seem to be the major determinants of bone loss and fractures in this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorptiometry, Photon / methods. Adult. Aged. Bone Density / genetics. Bone Density / physiology. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Genetic. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Spinal Fractures / etiology. Spinal Fractures / genetics. Spinal Fractures / physiopathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 24126765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2965
  • [Journal-full-title] Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Osteoporos Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid
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