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1. Adegoke O, Kulasingam S, Virnig B: Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2012 Oct;21(10):1031-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze trends in invasive cervical cancer incidence by age, histology, and race over a 35-year period (1973-2007) in order to gain insight into changes in the presentation of cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Data from the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries that continuously collected information on invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for trends.
  • Histologic subtype was classified into squamous, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous.
  • RESULTS: Overall incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer decreased by 54% over the 35 years, from 13.07/100,000 (1973-1975) to 6.01/100,000 (2006-2007), and the incidence rates declined by 51% and 70.2%, respectively, among whites and blacks.
  • The incidence rates for squamous carcinoma decreased by 61.1% from 10.2/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.97/100,000 (2006-2007).
  • Incidence rates for adenosquamous cell carcinomas decreased by 16% from 0.27/100,000 (1973-1975) to 0.23/100,000 (2006-2007), and incidence rates for adenocarcinomas increased by 32.2% from 1.09/100,000 (1973-1975) to 1.44/100,000 (2006-2007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although marked reductions in the overall and race-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer have been achieved, they mask important variation by histologic subtype.
  • These findings suggest that alternatives to Pap smear-based screening, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV vaccination, need to be prioritized if adenocarcinomas of the cervix are to be controlled.

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  • (PMID = 22816437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-843X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of women's health (2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Womens Health (Larchmt)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07-CA113773
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3521146
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3. Castanon A, Landy R, Sasieni PD: Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix? Int J Cancer; 2016 09 01;139(5):1040-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?
  • While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common.
  • Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma.
  • Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population-based case-control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down-staging of adenocarcinoma.
  • Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age-matched controls.
  • Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non-attenders.
  • The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non-attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.55) for adenocarcinoma.
  • The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46-1.09).
  • The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52-3.62) compared to non-attenders.
  • Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13); however, the odds doubled 3-5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67-3.18).
  • ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Grading. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio


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4. Kuji S, Hirashima Y, Komeda S, Tanaka A, Abe M, Takahashi N, Takekuma M: The relationship between positive peritoneal cytology and the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage I/II uterine cervical cancer. J Gynecol Oncol; 2014 Apr;25(2):90-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship between positive peritoneal cytology and the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage I/II uterine cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether peritoneal cytology has prognostic significance in uterine cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Peritoneal cytology was obtained in 228 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] stages IB1-IIB) between October 2002 and August 2010.
  • Of these patients, 3/139 (2.2%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 6/89 (6.7%) had adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma.
  • One of the 3 patients with squamous cell carcinoma who had positive cytology had a recurrence at the vaginal stump 21 months after radical hysterectomy.
  • All of the 6 patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma had disease recurrence during the follow-up period: 3 with peritoneal dissemination and 2 with lymph node metastases.
  • Multivariate analysis of prognosis in cervical cancer revealed that peritoneal cytology (p=0.029) and histological type (p=0.004) were independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: Positive peritoneal cytology may be associated with a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

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  • (PMID = 24761211.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3996270
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Peritoneal cytology / Prognosis / Radical hysterectomy / Uterine cervical cancer
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5. Fleming ND, Ramirez PT, Soliman PT, Schmeler KM, Chisholm GB, Nick AM, Westin SN, Frumovitz M: Quality of life after radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer: A 5-year prospective evaluation. Gynecol Oncol; 2016 Dec;143(3):596-603
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of life after radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer: A 5-year prospective evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally assess quality of life (QOL) in women undergoing radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with stage IA1-IB1 cervical cancer prior to undergoing radical trachelectomy to complete validated QOL instruments.
  • These instruments included the General Health-Related QOL (SF-12), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix (FACT-Cx), MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), and Satisfaction with Decision scale (SWD).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Carcinoma / surgery. Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / epidemiology. Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / epidemiology. Trachelectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / psychology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / psychology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / psychology. Prospective Studies. Role. Social Participation. Young Adult


6. Osman M: The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of locally advanced cervix cancer: a systematic review. Oncol Rev; 2014 Sep 23;8(2):250
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  • [Title] The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the management of locally advanced cervix cancer: a systematic review.
  • Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced cervix cancer has comparable benefits to concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), but with fewer side effects.
  • This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the management of locally advanced cervix cancer from stage IB2 (tumor >4.0 cm) to IIIB (tumor extending to the pelvic wall and/or hydronephrosis).
  • The data source included the USA national library of medicine, Medline search, and the National Cancer Institute PDQ Clinical Protocols.
  • In terms of histology, they had to be focused on squamous cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and/or adenocarcinoma.
  • Patients should be either chemotherapy naïve or cervix cancer chemotherapy naïve, and have a performance status ≤2.

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  • (PMID = 25992238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1970-5565
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4419645
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; neoadjuvant cervix chemotherapy / systemic quality survival
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7. Zhao C, Florea A, Austin RM: Clinical utility of adjunctive high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing in women with Papanicolaou test findings of atypical glandular cells. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jan;134(1):103-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: Atypical glandular cell (AGC) Papanicolaou (Pap) test interpretations are challenging.
  • DESIGN: Hospital records were searched for AGC Pap tests results from June 1, 2005, to August 31, 2007.
  • Among the 75 cases with hrHPV+ AGC results, 13 (17.3%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, 10 (13.3%) had adenocarcinoma in situ, and 3 (4.0%) had cervical invasive adenocarcinoma, whereas for 234 women with hrHPV(-) results, 1 (0.4%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, 1 (0.4%) had adenocarcinoma in situ, 1 each (0.4%) had cervical adenocarcinoma and ovarian carcinoma, and 8 (3.4%) had endometrial carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positive hrHPV AGC results were most strongly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ in women younger than 50 years.
  • Positive hrHPV AGC results were also present in all 3 cases of invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in women younger than 50 years.
  • Of note, hrHPV(-) AGC results were present in 10 of 13 carcinomas (76.9%) detected after AGC Pap tests, all in women 40 years or older with endometrial adenocarcinomas (n = 8), ovarian carcinoma (n = 1), and cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in a woman (n = 1) in her 50s.
  • Testing for hrHPV after AGC Pap testing was most helpful in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas in women younger than 50 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. DNA, Viral. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / virology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


8. Li M, Feng YM, Fang SQ: Overexpression of ezrin and galectin-3 as predictors of poor prognosis of cervical cancer. Braz J Med Biol Res; 2017 Mar 23;50(4):e5356
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  • [Title] Overexpression of ezrin and galectin-3 as predictors of poor prognosis of cervical cancer.
  • The aim of this study was to explore the correlation of ezrin and galectin-3 expressions with prognosis in cervical cancer.
  • The immunohistochemical method was applied to detect ezrin and galectin-3 expressions in normal cervix tissues (n=30), cervicitis tissues (n=28), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) tissues (classified as I-III, n=89), and cervical carcinoma tissues (n=84).
  • Ezrin and galectin-3 expressions in cervical cancer were significantly higher than in normal cervix, cervicitis and CIN (all P<0.05), and expressions in CIN were significantly higher than in normal cervix and cervicitis (both P<0.05).
  • Spearman analysis showed that ezrin expression was positively correlated with galectin-3 expression in cervical cancer (r=0.355, P<0.05).
  • The expressions of ezrin and galectin-3, histological grade, depth of stromal invasion, and lymph node metastasis are risk factors affecting the survival rate of patients with cervical cancer.
  • The expressions of ezrin and galectin-3 were correlated with the development of cervical cancer, and overexpressions of those proteins were indicative of poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 28355349.001).
  • [ISSN] 1414-431X
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of medical and biological research = Revista brasileira de pesquisas medicas e biologicas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / ezrin
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9. Kusanagi Y, Kojima A, Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sudo T, Yamaguchi S, Nishimura R: Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype. Am J Pathol; 2010 Nov;177(5):2169-75
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  • [Title] Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype.
  • A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected.
  • To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases).
  • Nongastric-type ACs were frequently positive for both hr-HPV DNA (90%, 28/31) and p16INK4a (94%, 29/31) with adenosquamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrating the presence of hr-HPV DNA in 86% (6/7) and 83% (5/6) of cases, respectively.
  • In these two types of carcinoma, 86% (6/7) and 100% (6/6) were positive for p16INK4a, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


10. Yokoi E, Mabuchi S, Takahashi R, Matsumoto Y, Kuroda H, Kozasa K, Kimura T: Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. J Gynecol Oncol; 2017 Mar;28(2):e19
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of histological subtype on survival in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy: adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the survival outcomes of patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma/adenosquamous carcinoma (AC/ASC) among patients with locally advanced cervical cancer that were treated with definitive radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: The baseline characteristics and outcome data of patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who were treated with definitive radiotherapy between November 1993 and February 2014 were collected and retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The patients with AC/ASC of the cervix exhibited significantly shorter overall survival (OS) (p=0.004) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p=0.002) than the patients with SCC of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: Locally advanced cervical cancer patients with AC/ASC histology experience significantly worse survival outcomes than those with SCC.
  • Further clinical studies are warranted to develop a concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) protocol that is specifically tailored to locally advanced cervical AC/ASC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality






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