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1. DiSilvestro PA, Ali S, Craighead PS, Lucci JA, Lee YC, Cohn DE, Spirtos NM, Tewari KS, Muller C, Gajewski WH, Steinhoff MM, Monk BJ: Phase III randomized trial of weekly cisplatin and irradiation versus cisplatin and tirapazamine and irradiation in stages IB2, IIA, IIB, IIIB, and IVA cervical carcinoma limited to the pelvis: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. J Clin Oncol; 2014 Feb 10;32(5):458-64
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  • [Title] Phase III randomized trial of weekly cisplatin and irradiation versus cisplatin and tirapazamine and irradiation in stages IB2, IIA, IIB, IIIB, and IVA cervical carcinoma limited to the pelvis: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.
  • PURPOSE: This prospective, randomized phase III intergroup trial of the Gynecologic Oncology Group and National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group was designed to test the effectiveness and safety of adding the hypoxic cell sensitizer tirapazamine (TPZ) to standard cisplatin (CIS) chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervix cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with locally advanced cervix cancer were randomly assigned to CIS chemoradiotherapy versus CIS/TPZ chemoradiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Chemoradiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 24395863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00262821
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA077202; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 077202; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Triazines; 1UD32YR59G / tirapazamine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3912330
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2. Adegoke O, Kulasingam S, Virnig B: Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt); 2012 Oct;21(10):1031-7
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  • [Title] Cervical cancer trends in the United States: a 35-year population-based analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze trends in invasive cervical cancer incidence by age, histology, and race over a 35-year period (1973-2007) in order to gain insight into changes in the presentation of cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Data from the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries that continuously collected information on invasive cervical cancer were analyzed for trends.
  • Histologic subtype was classified into squamous, adenocarcinoma, and adenosquamous.
  • RESULTS: Overall incidence rates for invasive cervical cancer decreased by 54% over the 35 years, from 13.07/100,000 (1973-1975) to 6.01/100,000 (2006-2007), and the incidence rates declined by 51% and 70.2%, respectively, among whites and blacks.
  • The incidence rates for squamous carcinoma decreased by 61.1% from 10.2/100,000 (1973-1975) to 3.97/100,000 (2006-2007).
  • Incidence rates for adenosquamous cell carcinomas decreased by 16% from 0.27/100,000 (1973-1975) to 0.23/100,000 (2006-2007), and incidence rates for adenocarcinomas increased by 32.2% from 1.09/100,000 (1973-1975) to 1.44/100,000 (2006-2007).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although marked reductions in the overall and race-specific incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer have been achieved, they mask important variation by histologic subtype.
  • These findings suggest that alternatives to Pap smear-based screening, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and HPV vaccination, need to be prioritized if adenocarcinomas of the cervix are to be controlled.

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  • (PMID = 22816437.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-843X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of women's health (2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Womens Health (Larchmt)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07-CA113773
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3521146
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3. Lu YF, Fong VH, Wu WY, Wang LY, Hsieh CH: Leptomeningeal metastasis of poorly differentiated uterine cervical adenosquamous carcinoma following reirradiation to metastatic vertebrae: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore); 2017 May;96(19):e6894
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal metastasis of poorly differentiated uterine cervical adenosquamous carcinoma following reirradiation to metastatic vertebrae: A case report.
  • RATIONALE: Leptomeningeal metastasis from cervical adenosquamous carcinoma is extremely rare especially after radiotherapy for vertebral metastasis.
  • PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old woman with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIB adenosquamous carcinoma of cervix presented with bilateral lower limbs weakening after 2 courses radiotherapy to thoracic vertebral metastases.
  • OUTCOMES: She died with progressive disease two months after the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases.
  • LESSONS: Poorly differentiated advanced-stage cervical adenosquamous carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm with a worse outcome.
  • Leptomeningeal metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis for patients with multifocal craniospinal neurological signs.
  • A combination of detailed neurological examinations, MRI and CSF study allowed us to establish a correct diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis and initiate treatment in a timely manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Zhao C, Florea A, Austin RM: Clinical utility of adjunctive high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing in women with Papanicolaou test findings of atypical glandular cells. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Jan;134(1):103-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CONTEXT: Atypical glandular cell (AGC) Papanicolaou (Pap) test interpretations are challenging.
  • DESIGN: Hospital records were searched for AGC Pap tests results from June 1, 2005, to August 31, 2007.
  • Among the 75 cases with hrHPV+ AGC results, 13 (17.3%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, 10 (13.3%) had adenocarcinoma in situ, and 3 (4.0%) had cervical invasive adenocarcinoma, whereas for 234 women with hrHPV(-) results, 1 (0.4%) had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, 1 (0.4%) had adenocarcinoma in situ, 1 each (0.4%) had cervical adenocarcinoma and ovarian carcinoma, and 8 (3.4%) had endometrial carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Positive hrHPV AGC results were most strongly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3 and adenocarcinoma in situ in women younger than 50 years.
  • Positive hrHPV AGC results were also present in all 3 cases of invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in women younger than 50 years.
  • Of note, hrHPV(-) AGC results were present in 10 of 13 carcinomas (76.9%) detected after AGC Pap tests, all in women 40 years or older with endometrial adenocarcinomas (n = 8), ovarian carcinoma (n = 1), and cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in a woman (n = 1) in her 50s.
  • Testing for hrHPV after AGC Pap testing was most helpful in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2/3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas in women younger than 50 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. DNA, Viral. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / virology. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


5. Elmarjany M, Maghous A, Razine R, Marnouche E, Andaloussi K, Bazine A, Lalya I, Zaghba N, Hadadi K, Sifat H, Habib B, Kouach J, Mansouri H: Diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of cervical cancer in Department of Radiotherapy, Mohamed V Military Hospital - Rabat in Morocco. Gynecol Oncol Res Pract; 2015;2:2
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  • [Title] Diagnostic, therapeutic and evolutionary characteristics of cervical cancer in Department of Radiotherapy, Mohamed V Military Hospital - Rabat in Morocco.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of uterine cervix is the second most common cause of cancer related deaths among women.
  • The aim of this study is to report the experience of Military Hospital Mohamed V in the management of cervical cancer and their results.
  • METHODS: All cervical cancer managed at the radiotherapy department of Military Hospital Mohamed V between January 2005 and February 2010, were included for investigation of their demographic, histological, therapeutic and follow-up characteristics.
  • The median duration of symptoms before diagnosis was four [3, 7] months.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma cervix was seen in 86.2 % (n = 137), adenocarcinoma in 11.3 % (n = 18) and adenosquamous carcinoma in 2.4 % (n = 4).
  • CONCLUSION: Most of cervical cancer patients in Morocco are seen at late stage necessitating referral for radiotherapy, chemotherapy or palliative care.
  • This may reflect lack of cervical screening in order to early detect and treat pre-malignant disease stage.

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  • (PMID = 27231562.001).
  • [ISSN] 2053-6844
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Oncol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4881057
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cancer of uterine cervix / Concomitant radio-chemotherapy / Radiotherapy
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6. Fleming ND, Ramirez PT, Soliman PT, Schmeler KM, Chisholm GB, Nick AM, Westin SN, Frumovitz M: Quality of life after radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer: A 5-year prospective evaluation. Gynecol Oncol; 2016 Dec;143(3):596-603
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of life after radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer: A 5-year prospective evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVES: To longitudinally assess quality of life (QOL) in women undergoing radical trachelectomy for early-stage cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: We prospectively enrolled patients with stage IA1-IB1 cervical cancer prior to undergoing radical trachelectomy to complete validated QOL instruments.
  • These instruments included the General Health-Related QOL (SF-12), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix (FACT-Cx), MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI), Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI), and Satisfaction with Decision scale (SWD).
  • [MeSH-major] Activities of Daily Living. Carcinoma / surgery. Pain, Postoperative / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / epidemiology. Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological / epidemiology. Trachelectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / psychology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / psychology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / psychology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / psychology. Prospective Studies. Role. Social Participation. Young Adult


7. Grizzle WE, Srivastava S, Manne U: The biology of incipient, pre-invasive or intraepithelial neoplasia. Cancer Biomark; 2010;9(1-6):21-39
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  • For some organs, such as the oral cavity, cervix and skin, the respective putative pre-invasive lesions can be observed over time and documented to progress to invasive lesions.
  • However, for less readily observable lesions, such as those of the prostate, the progression of the pre-invasive lesions, e.g., prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and prostatic proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) to prostatic cancer are more difficult to document.
  • 1) microinvasive disease developing from a pre-invasive neoplastic lesion, 2) the general association of the pre-invasive lesion with invasive lesions, 3) the subsequent development of invasive lesions following diagnosis of the pre-invasive lesion, 4) correlations of the molecular features of the putative pre-invasive lesion with the matching invasive lesions, and 5) reductions in the rate of cancer following removal of the pre-invasive lesion.
  • It is now commonly accepted that these lesions are a features of the spectrum of neoplastic development and most are accepted as ``neoplastic lesions'' with associated molecular features, even though they may be reversible even if they have mutations in suppressor genes (e.g., p53) or are associated with viral etiologies (e.g., cervical intraepithelial neoplasia).
  • The term "intra-epithelial neoplasia" with an associated grade, which has been developed for pre-invasive neoplastic lesions of the cervix, i.e. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), seems to be a terminology that adds consistency across epithelial organs.
  • An excellent example of this is ulcerative colitis (UC) in which dysregulation of microsatellite repair enzymes have been documented one year following diagnosis of UC.
  • While the nomenclature, description, diagnosis and etiology of pre-invasive neoplasia has advanced, approaches to therapy of such lesions have not progressed adequately even though it has been identified that, for example, removal of polyps periodically from the colorectum, DCIS from the breast, and high grade CIN from the cervix, results in a reduction in the development of cancers of the colorectum, breast, and cervix, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / chemically induced. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / radiation effects. Disease Progression. Environmental Exposure. Humans. Immunologic Surveillance. Metagenome. Mice. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neoplasms, Experimental / etiology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 22112468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR050948; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA089019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA101955; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA086359
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS402045; NLM/ PMC3430522
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8. Castanon A, Landy R, Sasieni PD: Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix? Int J Cancer; 2016 09 01;139(5):1040-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is cervical screening preventing adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix?
  • While the incidence of squamous carcinoma of the cervix has declined in countries with organised screening, adenocarcinoma has become more common.
  • Cervical screening by cytology often fails to prevent adenocarcinoma.
  • Using prospectively recorded cervical screening data in England and Wales, we conducted a population-based case-control study to examine whether cervical screening leads to early diagnosis and down-staging of adenocarcinoma.
  • Conditional logistic regression modelling was carried out to provide odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) on 12,418 women with cervical cancer diagnosed between ages 30 and 69 and 24,453 age-matched controls.
  • Of women with adenocarcinoma of the cervix, 44.3% were up to date with screening and 14.6% were non-attenders.
  • The overall OR comparing women up to date with screening with non-attenders was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.39-0.55) for adenocarcinoma.
  • The odds were significantly decreased (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15-0.33) in up to date women with Stage 2 or worse adenocarcinoma, but not for women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma 0.71 (95% CI: 0.46-1.09).
  • The odds of Stage 1A adenocarcinoma was double among lapsed attenders (OR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.52-3.62) compared to non-attenders.
  • Relative to women with no negative cytology within 7 years of diagnosis, women with Stage1A adenocarcinoma were very unlikely to be detected within 3 years of a negative cytology test (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.05-0.13); however, the odds doubled 3-5 years after a negative test (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.67-3.18).
  • ORs associated with up to date screening were smaller for squamous and adenosquamous cervical carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / prevention & control. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Mass Screening / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Grading. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio






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