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1. Bladowska J, Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Biel A, Sąsiadek M: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review. Pol J Radiol; 2010 Apr;75(2):88-93
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  • [Title] Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland: Case report and literature review.
  • Differentiation among various diseases may be not easy, because many of these lesions could mimic the clinical, endocrinologic and radiologic features of pituitary adenomas, which can be the cause of possible misdiagnosis.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 52-year-old man who presented with a persistent headache for the last 5-6 years and visual disturbances.
  • The MRI revealed an hypointense area - its presentation was similar to that of pituitary adenoma.
  • The correct diagnosis, i.e. a colloid cyst of the pituitary gland, was made intraoperatively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Colloid cyst of the pituitary gland is a very rare pathology but it must be considered if there is an hypointense area between the anterior and posterior pituitary lobe in MR imaging without contrast enhancement and if the patient presents with headaches, hypopituitarism and hyperprolactinaemia.

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  • (PMID = 22802782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1733-134X
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Radiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3389873
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MRI / colloid cyst / pituitary gland
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2. Ding D, Yen CP, Starke RM, Lee CC, Sheehan JP: Unyielding progress: recent advances in the treatment of central nervous system neoplasms with radiosurgery and radiation therapy. J Neurooncol; 2014 Sep;119(3):513-29
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  • To highlight the changes and contemporary treatment approaches, we review the indications and outcomes of ionizing radiation for benign intracranial tumors and brain metastases.
  • For nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, SRS is able to achieve radiographic tumor control in at least 90 % of cases.
  • The rate of SRS-induced endocrine remission for functioning pituitary adenomas depends on the tumor subtype, but it is generally lower than the rate of radiographic tumor control.
  • The most common complications from pituitary adenoma SRS treatment are hypopituitarism and cranial neuropathies.
  • While EBRT has been frequently supplanted by SRS for the treatment pituitary adenomas and brain metastases, it still proves useful in selected cases of large lesions which are not amenable to surgical debulking or for those with widespread disease, poor performance status, and short life expectancy.

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  • (PMID = 25119001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Profka E, Giavoli C, Bergamaschi S, Ferrante E, Malchiodi E, Sala E, Verrua E, Rodari G, Filopanti M, Beck-Peccoz P, Spada A: Analysis of short- and long-term metabolic effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in adult patients with craniopharyngioma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma. J Endocrinol Invest; 2015 Apr;38(4):413-20
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  • [Title] Analysis of short- and long-term metabolic effects of growth hormone replacement therapy in adult patients with craniopharyngioma and non-functioning pituitary adenoma.
  • PURPOSE: Adult patients operated for craniopharyngioma develop more frequently GH deficiency (GHD) than patients operated for non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA).
  • Pituitary MRI was performed at baseline and during follow-up, as needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / metabolism. Craniopharyngioma / blood. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Human Growth Hormone / pharmacology. Metabolic Syndrome X / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood


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4. Fleseriu M, Petersenn S: New avenues in the medical treatment of Cushing's disease: corticotroph tumor targeted therapy. J Neurooncol; 2013 Aug;114(1):1-11
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  • Cushing's disease (CD) is a condition of chronic hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Corticotroph adenomas frequently express both dopamine (D2) and somatostatin receptors (predominantly sstr5).
  • Pituitary-targeted medical therapies will soon play a more prominent role in treating CD, and may potentially become first-line medical therapy when surgery fails or is contraindicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hormone Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Mifepristone / therapeutic use. Pituitary Gland / drug effects. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 23673515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3724972
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5. Ayala A, Manzano AJ: Detection of recurrent Cushing's disease: proposal for standardized patient monitoring following transsphenoidal surgery. J Neurooncol; 2014 Sep;119(2):235-42
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  • Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) is first-line treatment for Cushing's disease (CD), a devastating disorder of hypercortisolism resulting from overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone by a pituitary adenoma.
  • Post-operative cortisol >5 µg/dL often signifies persistent disease and second-line treatment (e.g., immediate repeat pituitary surgery, radiotherapy, and/or medical therapy) may be considered.
  • This follow-up algorithm aims to (a) enable early diagnosis and treatment of recurrent CD, thereby minimizing the detrimental effects of hypercortisolism, and (b) begin addressing the need for standardized guidelines for vigilant monitoring of CD patients treated by TSS, as demonstrated by the reported rates of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Monitoring, Physiologic / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 24980037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4143611
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6. Di Ieva A, Rotondo F, Syro LV, Cusimano MD, Kovacs K: Aggressive pituitary adenomas--diagnosis and emerging treatments. Nat Rev Endocrinol; 2014 Jul;10(7):423-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aggressive pituitary adenomas--diagnosis and emerging treatments.
  • The WHO categorizes pituitary tumours as typical adenomas, atypical adenomas and pituitary carcinomas, with typical adenomas constituting the major class.
  • However, the WHO classification does not provide an accurate correlation between histopathological findings and clinical behaviour.
  • Pituitary carcinomas, by definition, have craniospinal or systemic metastases, although not all display classical cytological features of malignancy.
  • Aggressive pituitary adenomas, defined from a clinical perspective, have earlier and more frequent recurrences and can be resistant to conventional treatments.
  • Specific biomarkers have not yet been identified that can distinguish between clinically aggressive and nonaggressive pituitary adenomas, although the antigen Ki-67 proliferation index might be of value.
  • This Review highlights the need to develop new biomarkers to facilitate the early detection of clinically aggressive pituitary adenomas and discusses emerging markers that hold promise for their identification.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic / physiopathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 24821329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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7. Sharma ST, Nieman LK, Feelders RA: Comorbidities in Cushing's disease. Pituitary; 2015 Apr;18(2):188-94
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  • INTRODUCTION: Cushing's disease is a rare disorder characterized by overproduction of ACTH from a pituitary adenoma leading to hypercortisolemia that in turn leads to increased morbidity and mortality.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and treatment of hypercortisolemia, aggressive management of comorbidities along with long-term follow-up is crucial for the optimal recovery of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / epidemiology. Adenoma / epidemiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 25724314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4374115
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8. Yang X, Liu X, Li W, Chen D: Pituicytoma: A report of three cases and literature review. Oncol Lett; 2016 Nov;12(5):3417-3422
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  • Due to its rarity, ambiguity persists over the diagnosis, management and prognosis of pituicytoma.
  • The current study presents a case series of three patients, each with a histopathological diagnosis of pituicytoma.
  • Pituicytoma typically presents with dysfunction of the optic nerve and pituitary.
  • The radiological characteristics are nonspecific; diagnosis is typically made on the basis of histopathological results.
  • The tumor is slow growing and benign and is amenable to surgical treatment by gross total resection; subsequent tumor recurrence is rare.

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  • [ISSN] 1792-1074
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol Lett
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; infundibuloma / pathological diagnosis / pituicytoma / pituitary adenoma / surgery
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9. Giammattei L, Mantovani G, Carrabba G, Ferrero S, Di Cristofori A, Verrua E, Guastella C, Pignataro L, Rampini P, Minichiello M, Locatelli M: Pituitary apoplexy: considerations on a single center experience and review of the literature. J Endocrinol Invest; 2016 Jul;39(7):739-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary apoplexy: considerations on a single center experience and review of the literature.
  • PURPOSE: To present a single-center experience on pituitary tumor apoplexy and a review of literature focusing on predisposing and precipitating factors.
  • RESULTS: The definition of this syndrome has not been consistent although now the majority of authors agree to definite it as an acute condition caused by hemorrhage or infarction of a pre-existing pituitary adenoma.
  • The clinical cases observed in our clinic confirm these data and suggest a probable association between elderly patients taking anticoagulant therapy and pituitary apoplexy adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Pituitary tumor apoplexy remains a challenging disease in relation to difficulties in correct diagnosis and thus in appropriate treatment.
  • When a pituitary disorder is known, great care should be taken in the prescription of anticoagulant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / therapy

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  • (PMID = 26733212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Anticoagulant therapy / Apoplexy / Pituitary / Review
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10. Takekoshi S, Yasui Y, Inomoto C, Kitatani K, Nakamura N, Osamura RY: A Histopathological Study of Multi-hormone Producing Proliferative Lesions in Estrogen-induced Rat Pituitary Prolactinoma. Acta Histochem Cytochem; 2014 Aug 29;47(4):155-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A Histopathological Study of Multi-hormone Producing Proliferative Lesions in Estrogen-induced Rat Pituitary Prolactinoma.
  • Rats with estrogen-induced prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma (E2-PRLoma) have been employed as an animal model of human PRL-producing pituitary adenoma in a large number of studies.
  • PRLoma models were created in female SD rats by 22 weeks or longer administration of a controlled-release preparation of estradiol at a dose of 10 mg/kg/2 weeks.
  • Those results clarified that long-term estrogen administration to female SD rats induced multi-hormone producing neoplastic pituitary nodules that expressed PRL, TSHβ, and α subunits.
  • We consider that this animal model is useful for pathogenesis analyses and therapeutic agent development concerning human multi-hormone producing pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 25392569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-5991
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta histochemica et cytochemica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Histochem Cytochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4164703
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; estrogen / laser capture microdissection / multi-hormone producing adenoma / prolactinoma
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