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1. Takahashi K, Shoji I, Shibasaki A, Kato I, Hiraishi K, Yamamoto H, Kaneko K, Murakami O, Morimoto R, Satoh F, Ito S, Totsune K: Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors. J Mol Neurosci; 2010 May;41(1):138-44
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  • [Title] Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • Kisspeptins have also been reported to stimulate the aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex.
  • However, the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors has not been clarified yet.
  • We, therefore, studied the presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity (LI) in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors (adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas) by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry.
  • Kisspeptin-LI was detected in all the tissues examined; normal portions of adrenal glands (3.0 +/- 2.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 21, mean +/- SD), aldosterone-producing adenomas (4.6 +/- 3.3 pmol/g wet weight, n = 10), cortisol-producing adenomas (2.7 +/- 1.4 pmol/g wet weight, n = 14), adrenocortical carcinomas (1.7 +/- 0.2 pmol/g wet weight, n = 4), and pheochromocytomas (1.8 +/- 0.8 pmol/g wet weight, n = 6).
  • Immunocytochemistry showed positive kisspeptin-immunostaining in normal adrenal glands, with stronger immunostaining found in the medulla.
  • Furthermore, positive kisspeptin-immunostaining was found in all types of adrenal tumors examined; adrenocortical adenomas, adrenocortical carcinomas, and pheochromocytomas.
  • The intensity of kisspeptin-immunostaining in these adrenal tumors was, however, not so strong as that in normal adrenal medulla.
  • The present study has shown for the first time the presence of kisspeptin-LI in adrenal glands and adrenal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19898965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KISS1 protein, human; 0 / Kisspeptins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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2. Rebellato A, Grillo A, Dassie F, Sonino N, Maffei P, Martini C, Paoletta A, Fabris B, Carretta R, Fallo F: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability is increased in Cushing's syndrome. Endocrine; 2014 Nov;47(2):557-63
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  • Twenty-five patients with Cushing's syndrome (mean age 49 ± 13 years, 4 males; 21 Cushing's disease and 4 adrenal adenoma patients) underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and evaluation of cardiovascular risk factors.
  • It may represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Pressure / physiology. Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology. Cushing Syndrome / physiopathology. Hypertension / physiopathology


3. Wu CH, Yang YW, Hung SC, Tsai YC, Hu YH, Lin YH, Chu TS, Wu KD, Wu VC: Effect of Treatment on Body Fluid in Patients with Unilateral Aldosterone Producing Adenoma: Adrenalectomy versus Spironolactone. Sci Rep; 2015 Oct 19;5:15297
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  • [Title] Effect of Treatment on Body Fluid in Patients with Unilateral Aldosterone Producing Adenoma: Adrenalectomy versus Spironolactone.
  • In this study, body composition changes of 41 PA patients with unilateral aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) were assessed by a bio-impedance spectroscopy device.
  • In this pilot study, we found that adrenalectomy leads to an earlier increase in renal sodium excretion and decreases in body fluid content, TNF-α, and urine albumin excretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / therapy. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / therapy. Aldosterone / biosynthesis. Body Fluids / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 26477337.001).
  • [ISSN] 2045-2322
  • [Journal-full-title] Scientific reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00746070
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists; 27O7W4T232 / Spironolactone; 4964P6T9RB / Aldosterone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4609981
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4. Palmieri S, Morelli V, Salcuni AS, Eller-Vainicher C, Cairoli E, Zhukouskaya VV, Beck-Peccoz P, Scillitani A, Chiodini I: GH secretion reserve in subclinical hypercortisolism. Pituitary; 2014 Oct;17(5):470-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We enrolled 24 patients with adrenal adenomas, 12 with SH (SH+, 8 females, 58.3 ± 6.5 years) and 12 without SH (SH-; 11 females, 61.8 ± 10.6 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 24096994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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5. Chatterjee G, DasGupta S, Mukherjee G, Sengupta M, Roy P, Arun I, Datta C, Mishra PK, Banerjee S, Chatterjee U: Usefulness of Wieneke criteria in assessing morphologic characteristics of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Surg Int; 2015 Jun;31(6):563-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Usefulness of Wieneke criteria in assessing morphologic characteristics of adrenocortical tumors in children.
  • PURPOSE: Adrenocortical tumors (ACT) occur rarely in pediatric age group.
  • METHODS: This multi-institutional study comprised of 13 cases of pediatric ACTs from January 2005 to May 2014.
  • Each tumor was assessed according to criteria proposed by Wieneke et al. and was assigned to benign, intermediate for malignancy or malignant group.
  • RESULTS: There were total 6 cases of adrenocortical adenomas and 7 cases of adrenocortical carcinomas.
  • Applying Wieneke criteria, there were 6 benign and 6 malignant cases and one case was assigned to intermediate for malignancy group.
  • Applying Weiss criteria, 3 cases with benign clinical behavior were assigned to malignant group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 25895073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Nakamura Y, Maekawa T, Felizola SJ, Satoh F, Qi X, Velarde-Miranda C, Plonczynski MW, Ise K, Kikuchi K, Rainey WE, Gomez-Sanchez EP, Gomez-Sanchez CE, Sasano H: Adrenal CYP11B1/2 expression in primary aldosteronism: immunohistochemical analysis using novel monoclonal antibodies. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2014 Jul 05;392(1-2):73-9
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  • [Title] Adrenal CYP11B1/2 expression in primary aldosteronism: immunohistochemical analysis using novel monoclonal antibodies.
  • Clusters of cortical cells positive for CYP11B2 were detected in the zona glomerulosa (ZG) of normal adrenal gland (NA), idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA) and the adjacent adrenal of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA).
  • The relative immunoreactivity of CYP11B2 in the ZG of adjacent adrenal of APA was significantly lower than that of NA, IHA and APA tumor cells, suggestive of suppressed aldosterone biosynthesis in these cells.
  • CYP11B2 immunoreactivity in the ZG could also serve as a potential immunohistochemical marker differentiating morphologically hyperplastic ZG of IHA and APA adjacent adrenal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Glands / enzymology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2 / metabolism. Hyperaldosteronism / enzymology. Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex / enzymology. Adrenal Cortex / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Progesterone Reductase / metabolism. Protein Transport. Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 24837548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL027255
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; EC 1.1.1.145 / Progesterone Reductase; EC 1.14.14.19 / Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase; EC 1.14.15.4 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP11B2; EC 1.14.15.4 / Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; APA / Adrenal cortex / CYP11B1 / CYP11B2 / IHA / Monoclonal antibody
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7. Scholl UI, Nelson-Williams C, Yue P, Grekin R, Wyatt RJ, Dillon MJ, Couch R, Hammer LK, Harley FL, Farhi A, Wang WH, Lifton RP: Hypertension with or without adrenal hyperplasia due to different inherited mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2012 Feb 14;109(7):2533-8
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  • [Title] Hypertension with or without adrenal hyperplasia due to different inherited mutations in the potassium channel KCNJ5.
  • We recently implicated two recurrent somatic mutations in an adrenal potassium channel, KCNJ5, as a cause of aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas (APAs) and one inherited KCNJ5 mutation in a Mendelian form of early severe hypertension with massive adrenal hyperplasia.
  • The mutations identified all altered the channel selectivity filter, producing increased Na(+) conductance and membrane depolarization, the signal for aldosterone production and proliferation of adrenal glomerulosa cells.
  • Surprisingly, electrophysiology of channels expressed in 293T cells demonstrated that KCNJ5(G151E) was the more extreme mutation, producing a much larger Na(+) conductance than KCNJ5(G151R), resulting in rapid Na(+)-dependent cell lethality.
  • We infer that this increased lethality limits adrenocortical cell mass and the severity of aldosteronism in vivo, accounting for the milder phenotype among these patients.
  • These findings demonstrate striking variations in phenotypes and clinical outcome resulting from different mutations of the same amino acid in KCNJ5 and have implications for the diagnosis and pathogenesis of primary aldosteronism with and without adrenal hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocortical Hyperfunction / genetics. G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels / genetics. Hypertension / genetics. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Female. Humans. Male. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 22308486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK079310; United States / PHS HHS / / NIHDK54983; United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels; 0 / KCNJ5 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3289329
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8. Qin HY, Sun H, Wang X, Bai R, Li Y, Zhao J: Correlation between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in adrenal tumors. PLoS One; 2013;8(11):e79911
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  • [Title] Correlation between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor in adrenal tumors.
  • We evaluated the correlation between computed tomography (CT) perfusion parameters and markers of angiogenesis in adrenal adenomas and non-adenomas to determine if perfusion CT can be used to distinguish between them.
  • Thirty-four patients with pathologically-confirmed adrenal tumors (17 adenomas, 17 non-adenomas) received CT perfusion imaging before surgery.
  • The median BV was significantly higher in adenomas than in non-adenomas [12.3 ml/100 g, inter-quartile range (IQR): 10.4 to 16.5 ml/100 g vs. 8.8 ml/100 g, IQR: 3.3 to 9.4 ml/100 g, p=0.001].
  • Differences in BF, MTT, and PS parameter values between adenomas and non-adenomas were not significant (p>0.05).
  • The mean MVD was significantly higher in adenomas compared to non-adenomas (98.5 ± 28.5 vs. 53.5 ± 27.0, p<0.0001).
  • Adenomas also expressed significantly higher median VEGF than non-adenomas (65%, IQR: 50 to 79% vs. 45%, IQR: 35 to 67%, p=0.02).
  • A moderately strong correlation between BF and VEGF (r=0.53, p=0.03) and between BV and MVD among adenomas (r=0.57, p=0.02) exist.
  • Morphology, MVD, and VEGF expression in adenomas differ significantly from non-adenomas.
  • Of the CT perfusion parameters examined, both BF and BV correlate with MVD, but only BF correlates with VEGF, and only in adenomas.
  • The significant difference in BV suggests that BV may be used to differentiate adenomas from non-adenomas.
  • However, the small difference in BV shows that it may only be possible to use BV to identify adenomas vs. non-adenomas at extreme BV values.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Adrenocortical Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocortical Adenoma / pathology. Microvessels / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 24260316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3832505
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9. Reimondo G, Allasino B, Coletta M, Pia A, Peraga G, Zaggia B, Massaglia C, Paccotti P, Terzolo M: Evaluation of Midnight Salivary Cortisol as a Predictor Factor for Common Carotid Arteries Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Clinically Inapparent Adrenal Adenomas. Int J Endocrinol; 2015;2015:674734
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  • [Title] Evaluation of Midnight Salivary Cortisol as a Predictor Factor for Common Carotid Arteries Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Clinically Inapparent Adrenal Adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 26074962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8337
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Endocrinol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4446512
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10. Guo YW, Hwu CM, Won JG, Chu CH, Lin LY: A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep; 2016;2016:150118
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  • [Title] A case of adrenal Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) scintigraphy.
  • Adrenal computed tomography revealed bilateral adrenal masses.
  • Adrenal venous sampling was performed, and the right-to-left lateralisation ratio was 14.29.
  • The finding from adrenal scintigraphy with NP-59 was consistent with right adrenal adenoma.
  • The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy, and the pathology report showed adrenocortical adenoma.
  • In sum, both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good diagnostic methods for Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.
  • LEARNING POINTS: The clinical presentation of Cushing' syndrome includes symptoms and signs of fat redistribution and protein-wasting features.The diagnosis of patients with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal masses is challenging for localisation of the lesion.Both adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-NP-59 scintigraphy are good methods to use in these patients with Cushing's syndrome presenting with bilateral adrenal masses.

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  • (PMID = 27252858.001).
  • [ISSN] 2052-0573
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology, diabetes & metabolism case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4870494
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