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1. Liu YJ, Qiang W, Shi J, Lv SQ, Ji MJ, Shi BY: Expression and significance of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in thyroid nodules. Endocrine; 2013 Aug;44(1):158-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and significance of IGF-1 and IGF-1R in thyroid nodules.
  • There are limitations in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, especially follicular lesions, and their pathogenesis remains unclear.
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated in tumor cell apoptosis, transformation, invasion, and metastasis; however, its role in thyroid nodules is undetermined.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between expression of IGF-1 and thyroid nodule, and evaluate the role of IGF-1 in differential diagnosis and pathogenetic function of benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Sixty-two paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues from patients with thyroid nodules were selected, including 18 follicular adenomas (FA), 17 nodular goiters, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), 2 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 12 normal controls.
  • IGF-1 probably plays an important role in the genesis and development of certain solid cold thyroid nodules, including PTC, nodular goiters, and FA.
  • Detection of IGF-1 and IGF-1R expression in thyroid tissues by IHC or qRT-PCR is hard to distinguish malignant from benign lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 23288662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0100
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / IGF1 protein, human; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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2. Coban I, Cakir A, Unal TD, Bassullu N, Karpuz V, Dogusoy GB, Alper M: Emerin expression in well differentiated epithelial lesions of thyroid: implications in papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and predicting malignant behavior. Pathol Oncol Res; 2015 Apr;21(2):357-66
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  • [Title] Emerin expression in well differentiated epithelial lesions of thyroid: implications in papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and predicting malignant behavior.
  • Recently, it has been reported that identifying nuclear membrane irregularities with anti-emerin antibody is useful for papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosis.
  • However, literature regarding the significance of emerin immunohistochemistry in thyroid is limited.
  • We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the well-established nuclear alterations, nuclear protrusions and recently described nuclear shapes (garlands and star-like shapes) with emerin immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin- eosin stain in thyroid lesions.
  • We further evaluated the diagnostic accuracy measures of tissue microarrays evaluated with both stains, to detect whether emerin immunohistochemistry improves the diagnostic accuracy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • For papillary thyroid carcinoma, pseudo- inclusions were best performers with emerin (diagnostic accuracy: 0.91), whereas with hematoxylin- eosin diagnostic accuracy of grooves was the highest (0.92).
  • For follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, with both stains, predominately oval nuclear shape had the best diagnostic performance (diagnostic accuracy: 0.95).
  • Nuclear protrusions were poor identifiers for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Using emerin immunohistochemistry, in addition to hematoxylin- eosin improved the diagnostic accuracy for papillary thyroid carcinoma when compared to hematoxylin- eosin evaluation only (sensitivity: 0.70 vs 0.86, negative predictive value: 0.81 vs. 0.94, diagnostic accuracy: 0.87 vs. 0.94).
  • Consistent with the previous literature, our findings indicate that emerin immunohistochemistry may be used as an adjunct diagnostic method to identify papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Additionally, we suggest that nuclear protrusions detected with emerin imunohistochemistry may be used as indicators of malignant behavior in small tissue samples of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 25116851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2807
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / emerin; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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3. Spano JP, Vano Y, Vignot S, De La Motte Rouge T, Hassani L, Mouawad R, Menegaux F, Khayat D, Leenhardt L: GEMOX regimen in the treatment of metastatic differentiated refractory thyroid carcinoma. Med Oncol; 2012 Sep;29(3):1421-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] GEMOX regimen in the treatment of metastatic differentiated refractory thyroid carcinoma.
  • Treatment options for radioiodine resistant metastatic thyroid cancer patients are limited, and chemotherapy is considered an outdated therapeutic method for differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this study, we evaluated the activity and safety of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin combination which is considered an out of label therapeutic method in patients with differentiated metastatic thyroid cancer refractory to 131-I treatment.
  • Fourteen refractory patients (8 papillary, 6 follicular), six men/eight women with median age of 63 years and performance status (0-3) were included.
  • Overall response rate was 57%, with 7% achieving a complete response (1/14), 50% a partial response (7/14), and 28% with a stable disease.
  • All patients with follicular subtype showed objective responses.
  • The combination was generally well tolerated.
  • In conclusion, the GEMOX regimen is well tolerated and effective in advanced differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Off-Label Use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Salvage Therapy / methods


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4. Tahamtan M, Mokhtari M, Pakbaz S, Tahamtan M: Occult follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as a frontal bone metastasis: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2012;2012:678935
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  • [Title] Occult follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as a frontal bone metastasis: a case report.
  • This is a rare case of metastatic follicular carcinoma of thyroid in a patient with no history of thyroid problem.
  • A frontal bone mass was examined microscopically and showed the pattern of metastatic follicular carcinoma.
  • Thyroid ultrasonography then revealed a nodule in left lobe.
  • Total thyroidectomy was done for the patient and microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 22431938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3295547
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5. Zhu XG, Zhao L, Willingham MC, Cheng SY: Thyroid hormone receptors are tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. Oncogene; 2010 Apr 1;29(13):1909-19
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  • [Title] Thyroid hormone receptors are tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Aberrant expression and mutations of thyroid hormone receptor genes (TRs) are closely associated with several types of human cancers.
  • As these mice aged, they spontaneously developed follicular thyroid carcinoma with pathological progression from hyperplasia to capsular invasion, vascular invasion, anaplasia and metastasis to the lung, similar to human thyroid cancer.
  • In addition, consistent with the human cancer, AKT-mTOR-p70(S6K) signaling and vascular growth factor and its receptor were activated to facilitate tumor progression.
  • Thus, TRs could function as tumor suppressors in a mouse model of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mice, Transgenic. Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Mice. Mutation. Signal Transduction / genetics


6. Cheng PW, Chou HW, Wang CT, Lo WC, Liao LJ: Evaluation and development of a real-time predictive model for ultrasound investigation of malignant thyroid nodules. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2014 May;271(5):1199-206
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  • [Title] Evaluation and development of a real-time predictive model for ultrasound investigation of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • Ultrasound investigations and correct identification of malignant thyroid nodules depend on the experience and qualifications of the investigators; thus, a model that provides better evaluation before needle aspiration is desired.
  • Data from 687 patients with 726 thyroid nodules comprising 65 malignant nodules (61 papillary and 4 follicular carcinoma) and 661 benign nodules were used to construct a predictive model.
  • A thyroid nodule was predicted as malignant with a score ≥3.3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnostic imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Computer Simulation. Software. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiology Information Systems. Research Design. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 23846666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-4726
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Stratmann M, Sekulla C, Dralle H, Brauckhoff M: [Current TNM system of the UICC/AJCC : the prognostic significance for differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2012 Jul;83(7):646-51
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  • [Title] [Current TNM system of the UICC/AJCC : the prognostic significance for differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of study was an evaluation of prognostic factors of the current TNM version (UICC/AJCC 2009, 7th revision) for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 368 patients with DTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC] n = 269, follicular thyroid carcinoma [FTC] n = 99) were included.
  • Disease-specific survival (DSS) was calculated based on the different TNM stages (mean follow-up 60 ± 37.5 months).
  • RESULTS: When compared to patients with FTC, PTC patients had smaller tumors (diameter 19 mm versus 33 mm), more often lymph node metastases (40.9% versus 9.1%) but less frequent distant metastases (2.6 versus 13.1%) and poorly differentiated variants (PDTC 3.0% versus 8.1%).
  • The 5-year and 10-year DSS for PTC versus FTC were 97.3% versus 91.5% and 96.2% versus 91.5% (p = 0.086), respectively.
  • When comparing different TNM categories between well-differentiated PTC and FTC, no statistically significant differences were found but PDTCs, had a significantly worse DSS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current TNM system is a sufficient tool for predicting DSS in well-differentiated PTC.
  • In FTC, the extent of capsular and vascular invasion should also be considered.
  • The implementation of a specific TNM system for PDTC needs to be confirmed in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 22273853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, follicular; Thyroid cancer, papillary
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9. Fallahi P, Giannini R, Miccoli P, Antonelli A, Basolo F: Molecular diagnostics of fine needle aspiration for the presurgical screening of thyroid nodules. Curr Genomics; 2014 Jun;15(3):171-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecular diagnostics of fine needle aspiration for the presurgical screening of thyroid nodules.
  • "The incidence of thyroid cancer, the most common endocrine malignancy, is rising.
  • The two most common types of thyroid cancer are papillary and follicular" thyroid carcinomas.
  • "Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules" can permit to detect many genetic mutations and other molecular alterations, including RAS and BRAF point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ and "RET/PTC rearrangements, occurring in thyroid papillary and follicular carcinomas" (more than 70% of cases), which can be used successfully to improve the diagnosis "and the management of patients with thyroid nodules".
  • "The accuracy of cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules could be improved significantly using these and other emerging molecular markers".

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  • (PMID = 24955024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1389-2029
  • [Journal-full-title] Current genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4064556
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; BRAF / Cytology / PAX8/PPARγ. / RAS / RET / Thyroid cancer / Thyroid nodules
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10. Ho WL, Zacharin MR: Thyroid carcinoma in children, adolescents and adults, both spontaneous and after childhood radiation exposure. Eur J Pediatr; 2016 May;175(5):677-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma in children, adolescents and adults, both spontaneous and after childhood radiation exposure.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is the most common second malignancy for childhood cancer survivors.
  • Thyroid nodules in children have a high risk for malignancy, whether spontaneous or after radiation.
  • Due to the extremely limited available paediatric data, we sought to review a series of patients with thyroid carcinoma, seen over 25 years.
  • Thirty-nine (84.8 %) had papillary thyroid carcinoma, five (10.9 %) follicular carcinoma and 2 (4.3 %) medullary thyroid carcinoma (MEN2B).
  • Thirty-three (71.7 %) had childhood radiation exposure (17 females) with thyroid malignancy occurring 6-37 years later.
  • The smallest nodule size found on surveillance to have thyroid malignancy was 4 mm.
  • Thyroid cancer in patients 16 years and under was seen in 22 patients (47.8 %).
  • All had total thyroidectomy, with initial central node clearance from 2005.
  • Forty-two remain alive and well.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound screening is required for early diagnosis as small nodule size is not predictive of benign histology or absence of metastases.
  • Despite metastatic disease at presentation for some, prognosis is favourable.
  • WHAT IS KNOWN: • Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing and radiation exposure in childhood cancer survivors is clearly linked to risk.
  • What is New: • Paper provides good evidence to confirm existing views with the largest cohort of thyroid cancer reported to date in the paediatric age group in Australia, and the largest cohort in Australia where there have been specific high risks of radiation exposure.
  • The only other reported larger studies have come from the Children's Oncology Group and Childhood Cancer Survivor Study [24].
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Radiation Exposure / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 26805408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1076
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood radiation exposure / Paediatric thyroid carcinoma / Thyroid neoplasms / Thyroid nodules
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