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1. Okumura N, Akutsu H, Sugawara T, Miura T, Takezawa Y, Hosoda A, Yoshida K, Ichida JK, Yamada M, Hamatani T, Kuji N, Miyado K, Yoshimura Y, Umezawa A: β-catenin functions pleiotropically in differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse embryo-derived stem cells. PLoS One; 2013;8(5):e63265
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  • [Title] β-catenin functions pleiotropically in differentiation and tumorigenesis in mouse embryo-derived stem cells.
  • It also plays an important role in the maintenance of various types of stem cells including adult stem cells and cancer stem cells.
  • However, it is unclear if β-catenin is required for the derivation of mouse embryo-derived stem cells.
  • Here, we established β-catenin-deficient (β-cat(Δ/Δ)) mouse embryo-derived stem cells and showed that β-catenin is not essential for acquiring self-renewal potential in the derivation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs).
  • However, teratomas formed from embryo-derived β-cat(Δ/Δ) ESCs were immature germ cell tumors without multilineage differentiated cell types.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogenesis / genetics. Cell Differentiation / genetics. Embryonic Stem Cells / cytology. Embryonic Stem Cells / pathology. Genetic Pleiotropy. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 23691006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R00 NS077435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3653942
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2. Forés-Martos J, Cervera-Vidal R, Chirivella E, Ramos-Jarero A, Climent J: A genomic approach to study down syndrome and cancer inverse comorbidity: untangling the chromosome 21. Front Physiol; 2015;6:10
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  • The increased genomic dosage of trisomy 21 is thought to be responsible for the distinct DS phenotypes, including an increased risk of developing some types of childhood leukemia and germ cell tumors.
  • Patients with DS, however, have a strikingly lower incidence of many other solid tumors.
  • We hypothesized that the third copy of genes located in HSA21 may have an important role on the protective effect that DS patients show against most types of solid tumors.
  • Focusing on Copy Number Variation (CNV) array data, we have generated frequencies of deleted regions in HSA21 in four different tumor types from which DS patients have been reported to be protected.
  • We describe three different regions of deletion pointing to a set of candidate genes that could explain the inverse comorbidity phenomenon between DS and solid tumors.
  • In particular we found RCAN1 gene in Wilms tumors and a miRNA cluster containing miR-99A, miR-125B2 and miR-LET7C in lung, breast, and melanoma tumors as the main candidates for explaining the inverse comorbidity observed between solid tumors and DS.

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  • (PMID = 25698970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1664-042X
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4316712
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; BTG3 / Chr. 21p11 / RCAN1 / cancer genomics / down syndrome / inverse comorbidity
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3. Afzal S, Wherrett D, Bartels U, Tabori U, Huang A, Stephens D, Bouffet E: Challenges in management of patients with intracranial germ cell tumor and diabetes insipidus treated with cisplatin and/or ifosfamide based chemotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2010 May;97(3):393-9
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  • [Title] Challenges in management of patients with intracranial germ cell tumor and diabetes insipidus treated with cisplatin and/or ifosfamide based chemotherapy.
  • Patients with intracranial germ cell tumor (IGCT) often present with pituitary dysfunction, including diabetes insipidus (DI).
  • Management of DI in these patients requires monitoring of electrolytes and fluids during chemotherapy and hyperhydration.
  • Out of 32 patients who received chemotherapy, 21 had DI.
  • DI and non-DI patients were compared for each cycle of chemotherapy.
  • Fifty-four cycles of chemotherapy in DI patients were compared to 25 cycles in non DI patients.
  • All 21 patients with DI required daily change in dosage and schedule of DDAVP.
  • Marked variations in daily sodium level were observed in the DI group.
  • Seventeen courses required prolonged admission in the DI group (one in non DI patients) and 6 patients experienced serious complications.
  • In conclusion, DI is a risk factor for complications when cisplatin and/or ifosfamide based protocols are used.
  • The role of these agents in the management of ICGT should be carefully evaluated and guidelines for management of DI established.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Diabetes Insipidus / drug therapy. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy


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4. Cook MB, Chia VM, Berndt SI, Graubard BI, Chanock SJ, Rubertone MV, Erickson RL, Hayes RB, McGlynn KA: Genetic contributions to the association between adult height and testicular germ cell tumors. Int J Epidemiol; 2011 Jun;40(3):731-9
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  • [Title] Genetic contributions to the association between adult height and testicular germ cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Previously, we have shown that increasing adult height is associated with increased risk of testicular germ-cell tumor (TGCT).
  • METHODS: We genotyped 15 height-related SNPs in the US Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants (STEED) case-control study.
  • DNA was extracted from buccal cell samples and Taqman assays were used to type the selected SNPs.

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  • (PMID = 21233139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3685
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3147069
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5. Bartkova J, Bakkenist CJ, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Skakkebaek NE, Sehested M, Lukas J, Kastan MB, Bartek J: ATM activation in normal human tissues and testicular cancer. Cell Cycle; 2005 Jun;4(6):838-45
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  • The ATM kinase is a tumor suppressor and key regulator of biological responses to DNA damage.
  • Cultured cells respond to genotoxic insults that induce DNA double-strand breaks by prompt activation of ATM through its autophosphorylation on serine 1981.
  • Here we produced phospho-specific monoclonal antibodies against S1981-phosphorylated ATM (pS-ATM), and applied them to immunohistochemical analyses of a wide range of normal human tissues and testicular tumors.
  • In contrast, nuclear staining for pS-ATM was detected in subsets of bone-marrow lymphocytes and primary spermatocytes in the adult testes, cell types in which DSBs are generated during physiological V(D)J recombination and meiotic recombination, respectively.
  • Among testicular germ-cell tumors, an aberrant constitutive pS-ATM was observed especially in embryonal carcinomas, less in seminomas, and only modestly in teratomas and the pre-invasive carcinoma-in-situ stage.
  • Compared with pS-ATM, phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX), another DNA damage marker and ATM substrate, was detected in a higher proportion of cancer cells, and also in normal fetal gonocytes, and a wider range of adult spermatocyte differentiation stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Cervix Uteri / cytology. DNA Damage / genetics. Epithelial Cells / radiation effects. Esophagus / cytology. Female. Fetus / cytology. Fibroblasts / radiation effects. Health. Humans. Male. Mutation / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Organ Specificity. Phosphorylation. Recombinant Proteins. Stomach / cytology

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  • [CommentIn] Cell Cycle. 2010 Jun 1;9(11):2063-4 [20736522.001]
  • (PMID = 15846060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / ATM protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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6. Awa R, Campos F, Arita K, Sugiyama K, Tominaga A, Kurisu K, Yamasaki F, Karki P, Tokimura H, Fukukura Y, Fujii Y, Hanaya R, Oyoshi T, Hirano H: Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors-quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma. Neuroradiology; 2014 Jul;56(7):525-34
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  • [Title] Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors-quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors.
  • METHODS: Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs.
  • Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %).
  • Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas.
  • It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p<0.0001, Fisher's test).
  • CONCLUSION: By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neuroimaging / methods. Pinealoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 24777305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1920
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Wang Y, Gan Y, Tan Z, Zhou J, Kitazawa R, Jiang X, Tang Y, Yang J: TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Onco Targets Ther; 2016;9:409-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated.
  • Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration).
  • Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed.
  • Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates.
  • Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells.
  • Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway; this contributes to an understanding of the precise mechanisms underlying the development and migration of seminomas and lays a theoretical foundation for the development of appropriate therapies.

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  • (PMID = 26855590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-6930
  • [Journal-full-title] OncoTargets and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onco Targets Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4725695
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Akt / PI3K / TDRG1 / mTOR / testicular seminoma
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8. Rakha S, Bayliss C, Sanderson F, Smith R, Seckl M, Savage P: Pituitary hCG production and cerebral tuberculosis mimicking disease progression during chemotherapy for an advanced ovarian germ cell tumour. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:338
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary hCG production and cerebral tuberculosis mimicking disease progression during chemotherapy for an advanced ovarian germ cell tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumours (OGCT) are rare but are usually curable with chemotherapy, even when presenting with advanced disease.
  • The majority of OGCT produce the tumour markers, hCG and/or AFP which can be helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring the response to treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: In this case of a 36 year old woman, the elevated hCG level at presentation was helpful in making a clinical diagnosis of OGCT in a patient too unwell to permit a tissue diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20587067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2909206
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9. Murray MJ, Huddart RA, Coleman N: The present and future of serum diagnostic tests for testicular germ cell tumours. Nat Rev Urol; 2016 Dec;13(12):715-725
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The present and future of serum diagnostic tests for testicular germ cell tumours.
  • Testicular germ cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common malignancy occurring in young adult men and the incidence of these tumours is increasing.
  • The conventional serum protein tumour markers α-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) show some utility in the management of testicular malignant GCT.
  • However, AFP and hCG display limited sensitivity and specificity, being indicative of yolk sac tumour (AFP) and choriocarcinoma or syncytiotrophoblast (hCG) subtypes.
  • MicroRNAs from two 'clusters', miR-371-373 and miR-302-367, are overexpressed in all malignant GCTs, regardless of age (adult or paediatric), site (gonadal or extragonadal) and subtype (seminomas, yolk sac tumours or embryonal carcinomas).
  • A panel of four circulating microRNAs from these two clusters (miR-371a-3p, miR-372-3p, miR-373-3p and miR-367-3p) is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of malignant GCT, including seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • In the future, circulating microRNAs might be useful in diagnosis, disease monitoring and prognostication of malignant testicular GCTs, which might also reduce reliance on serial CT scanning.

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  • (PMID = 27754472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4820
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 13080; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ EX/ G0800464; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875
  • [Publication-type] Review; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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10. Favilla V, Russo GI, Spitaleri F, Urzì D, Garau M, Madonia M, Saita A, Pirozzi Farina F, La Vignera S, Condorelli R, Calogero AE, Cimino S, Morgia G: Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT): what is the significance of this finding? Int Urol Nephrol; 2014 Jun;46(6):1131-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multifocality in testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT): what is the significance of this finding?
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to determine the association between multifocality and the pathological features of testicular germ cell tumors and its clinical implication.
  • Multifocality was defined as a distinct tumor focus of cluster of malignant cells > 0.5 mm and separable from the main tumor mass.
  • Subjects with multifocality had larger primary tumor lesions (3.7 vs. 3.0 cm; p < 0.05).
  • On multivariate logistic regression analysis, multifocality was not demonstrated to be an adverse pathological feature of clinical stages II-III (p = 0.23) or pathological stage ≥ pT2 (p = 0.30) when included in a model with tumor size ≥ 4 cm and rete testis invasion in seminoma tumor and neither of clinical stages II-III (p = 0.36) or pathological stage ≥ pT2 (p = 0.20) when included in a model with lymphovascular invasion and percentage of embrional cancer ≥ 50 % in non-seminoma ones.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Tumor Burden. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 24318367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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