[X] Close
You are about to erase all the values you have customized, search history, page format, etc.
Click here to RESET all values       Click here to GO BACK without resetting any value
Item 1 of about 1
1. Orizio G, Merla A, Schulz PJ, Gelatti U: Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review. J Med Internet Res; 2011;13(3):e74
PDF icon [Fulltext service] Download fulltext PDF of this article and others, as many as you want.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quality of online pharmacies and websites selling prescription drugs: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Online pharmacies are companies that sell pharmaceutical preparations, including prescription-only drugs, on the Internet.
  • Very little is known about this phenomenon because many online pharmacies operate from remote countries, where legal bases and business practices are largely inaccessible to international research.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to perform an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the scientific literature focusing on the broader picture of online pharmacies by scanning several scientific and institutional databases, with no publication time limits.
  • METHODS: We searched 4 electronic databases up to January 2011 and the gray literature on the Internet using the Google search engine and its tool Google Scholar.
  • We also investigated the official websites of institutional agencies (World Health Organization, and US and European centers for disease control and drug regulation authorities).
  • We focused specifically on online pharmacies offering prescription-only drugs.
  • We decided to analyze and report only articles with original data, in order to review all the available data regarding online pharmacies and their usage.
  • RESULTS: We selected 193 relevant articles: 76 articles with original data, and 117 articles without original data (editorials, regulation articles, or the like) including 5 reviews.
  • The articles with original data cover samples of online pharmacies in 47 cases, online drug purchases in 13, consumer characteristics in 15, and case reports on adverse effects of online drugs in 12.
  • The studies show that random samples with no specific limits to prescription requirements found that at least some websites sold drugs without a prescription and that an online questionnaire was a frequent tool to replace prescription.
  • Data about geographical characteristics show that this information can be concealed in many websites.
  • The analysis of drug offer showed that online a consumer can get virtually everything.
  • Regarding quality of drugs, researchers very often found inappropriate packaging and labeling, whereas the chemical composition usually was not as expected in a minority of the studies' samples.
  • Regarding consumers, the majority of studies found that not more than 6% of the samples had bought drugs online.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Online pharmacies are an important phenomenon that is continuing to spread, despite partial regulation, due to intrinsic difficulties linked to the impalpable and evanescent nature of the Web and its global dimension.
  • To enhance the benefits and minimize the risks of online pharmacies, a 2-level approach could be adopted.
  • The first level should focus on policy, with laws regulating the phenomenon at an international level.
  • The second level needs to focus on the individual.
  • This approach should aim to increase health literacy, required for making appropriate health choices, recognizing risks and making the most of the multitude of opportunities offered by the world of medicine 2.0.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Information Services / statistics & numerical data. Drug Prescriptions / statistics & numerical data. Internet / statistics & numerical data. Prescription Drugs / supply & distribution. Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Consumer Participation / statistics & numerical data. Drug and Narcotic Control. Humans

  • [Email] Email this result item
    Email the results to the following email address:   [X] Close
  • [Cites] Ann Intern Med. 2005 Sep 20;143(6):397-403 [16172438.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Dec;17(12):1437-8 [16292105.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Pharm. 2005 Dec 8;306(1-2):56-70 [16266793.001]
  • [Cites] Contraception. 2006 Apr;73(4):372-5 [16531170.001]
  • [Cites] Cleve Clin J Med. 2006 Mar;73(3):282-8 [16548451.001]
  • [Cites] J Subst Abuse Treat. 2006 Apr;30(3):271-4 [16616172.001]
  • [Cites] Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;30(4):640-6 [16458404.001]
  • [Cites] J Leg Med. 2006 Jun;27(2):207-24 [16728353.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;163(7):1233-8 [16816229.001]
  • [Cites] Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006 Aug;9(4):404-9 [16901243.001]
  • [Cites] Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2006 Oct;8(5):377-82 [16968618.001]
  • [Cites] Pain Physician. 2006 Oct;9(4):287-321 [17066115.001]
  • [Cites] Med Inform Internet Med. 2006 Dec;31(4):247-53 [17135057.001]
  • [Cites] Nurs Times. 2006 Nov 14-20;102(46):23-4 [17144224.001]
  • [Cites] Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Dec;81(12):1627-9 [17165642.001]
  • [Cites] Rev Saude Publica. 2007 Apr;41(2):297-300 [17384808.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Jul;41(7):1111-5 [17595307.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Health Serv. 2007;37(2):279-89 [17665724.001]
  • [Cites] PLoS Med. 2007 Sep;4(9):e274 [17880258.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Electron Healthc. 2005;1(3):291-302 [18048211.001]
  • [Cites] J Adolesc Health. 2008 May;42(5):458-65 [18407040.001]
  • [Cites] Telemed J E Health. 2008 May;14(4):375-80 [18570568.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(3):e22 [18725354.001]
  • [Cites] Pain Med. 2008 Sep;9(6):718-23 [18816331.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 6;150(1):60-1 [19124828.001]
  • [Cites] J Anal Toxicol. 2009 Mar;33(2):99-103 [19239735.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Feb;67(2):250-4 [19154446.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2009;11(1):e4 [19275980.001]
  • [Cites] Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009 Jan;28(1):81-6 [19320680.001]
  • [Cites] Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Mar;106(13):218-22 [19471631.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Law Med. 2009;35(1):125-84 [19534258.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Public Health. 2009 Aug;19(4):375-7 [19151103.001]
  • [Cites] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009 Sep;23(9):1050-5 [19453812.001]
  • [Cites] Health Policy. 2009 Oct;92(2-3):187-96 [19394104.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Fam Med. 2009 Sep-Oct;7(5):431-5 [19752471.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Health Law. 2009 Dec;16(4):351-66 [19927423.001]
  • [Cites] Telemed J E Health. 2009 Dec;15(10):1022-5 [19929235.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010 Jan;62(1):153-4 [20082897.001]
  • [Cites] J Addict Dis. 2009 Oct;28(4):332-47 [20155603.001]
  • [Cites] Med Law Rev. 2010 Winter;18(1):28-55 [20133321.001]
  • [Cites] Physiol Behav. 2010 Jun 1;100(3):205-7 [20093133.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2010;12(2):e11 [20439253.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Mar;64(4):497-504 [20088883.001]
  • [Cites] J Sex Med. 2010 Mar;7(3):1237-46 [20136707.001]
  • [Cites] Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Jul 1;110(1-2):21-9 [20227199.001]
  • [Cites] Neurologist. 2010 Jul;16(4):262-4 [20592570.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Aug;64(9):1319-22 [20497263.001]
  • [Cites] Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Sep;398(1):125-36 [20582403.001]
  • [Cites] PLoS One. 2010;5(8):e12199 [20730049.001]
  • [Cites] Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Sep;19(9):970-6 [20652863.001]
  • [Cites] Fertil Steril. 2010 Nov;94(6):2331.e1-3 [20416868.001]
  • [Cites] J Sex Med. 2010 Nov;7(11):3736-42 [20722788.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Pharm Pract. 2010 Dec;18(6):341-5 [21054594.001]
  • [Cites] Inform Health Soc Care. 2011 Jan;36(1):20-34 [21208091.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Sex Behav. 2011 Jun;40(3):597-606 [20358273.001]
  • [Cites] J Emerg Med. 2012 Feb;42(2):227-32 [20656438.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Intern Med. 1999 Dec 7;131(11):830-3 [10610627.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Mar;163(3):919-23 [10688016.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 2000 Oct;106(4):829-30 [11015528.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Intern Med. 2000 Dec 5;133(11):877-80 [11103057.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Pharmacother. 2000 Dec;34(12):1483-5 [11144707.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Pharmacother. 2001 Jan;35(1):116-9 [11197571.001]
  • [Cites] Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jan;97(1):121-6 [11152920.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2001 Mar-Apr;41(2):205-12 [11297333.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 1999 Oct-Dec;1(2):E10 [11720919.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2001 Jan-Mar;3(1):E3 [11720945.001]
  • [Cites] Dermatol Surg. 2001 Nov;27(11):975-8 [11737136.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Clin Pract. 2002 Jun;56(5):403-4 [12137453.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Med. 2002 Oct 1;113(5):424-7 [12401538.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Dec;58(9):567-72 [12483449.001]
  • [Cites] J Law Med. 2003 Feb;10(3):339-63 [12650004.001]
  • [Cites] JAMA. 2003 May 14;289(18):2400-6 [12746364.001]
  • [Cites] JAMA. 2003 Aug 20;290(7):889 [12928464.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Oct;37(10):1531 [14519026.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2003 Sep-Oct;43(5):639-42 [14626758.001]
  • [Cites] Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Feb;79(2):188-94 [14959914.001]
  • [Cites] Health Econ. 2004 Apr;13(4):329-44 [15067671.001]
  • [Cites] J Med Internet Res. 2004 Mar 3;6(1):e9 [15111275.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Neurol. 2004 Jul;61(7):1111-2 [15262744.001]
  • [Cites] Science. 2004 Jul 23;305(5683):481 [15273381.001]
  • [Cites] Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Aug;79(8):1031-4 [15301331.001]
  • [Cites] Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Aug;79(8):1065-9 [15301336.001]
  • [Cites] BMJ. 1999 Jun 26;318(7200):1720 [10381702.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1999 Oct 28;341(18):1389-92 [10536133.001]
  • [Cites] Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Dec;79(12):1587-8; author reply 1588 [15595348.001]
  • [Cites] J Hosp Mark Public Relations. 2003;15(1):61-76 [15683019.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Pharmacother. 2005 Apr;39(4):662-7 [15713791.001]
  • [Cites] Health Policy. 2005 May;72(2):245-52 [15802158.001]
  • (PMID = 21965220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8871
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical Internet research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Internet Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prescription Drugs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3222188
  •  go-up   go-down


Advertisement





Advertisement