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Items 1 to 10 of about 976
1. McLarnon JG, Choi HB, Lue LF, Walker DG, Kim SU: Perturbations in calcium-mediated signal transduction in microglia from Alzheimer's disease patients. J Neurosci Res; 2005 Aug 1;81(3):426-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perturbations in calcium-mediated signal transduction in microglia from Alzheimer's disease patients.
  • Calcium-sensitive fluorescence microscopy has been used to study Ca2+-dependent signal transduction pathways in microglia obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and non-demented (ND) individuals.
  • Data were obtained from nine AD cases and seven ND individuals and included basal levels of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i, peak amplitudes (Delta[Ca2+]i) and time courses of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) responses and amplitudes of an initial transient response and a subsequent second component of Ca2+ influx through store-operated channels (SOC) induced by platelet-activating factor (PAF).
  • Overall, AD microglia were characterized by significantly higher (20%) basal Ca2+ [Ca2+]i relative to ND cells.
  • The Delta[Ca2+]i of ATP and initial phase of PAF responses, which reflect rapid depletion of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum stores, were reduced by respective values of 63% and 59% in AD cells relative to amplitudes recorded from ND microglia.
  • Additionally, AD microglia showed diminished amplitudes (reduction of 61%) of SOC-mediated Ca2+ entry induced by PAF and prolonged time courses (increase of 60%) of ATP responses with respect to ND microglia.
  • We have generally replicated these results with exposure of human fetal microglia to beta amyloid (5 microM Abeta1-42 applied for 24 hr).
  • Overall, these data indicate significant abnormalities are present in Ca2+-mediated signal transduction in microglia isolated from AD patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Alzheimer Disease / pathology. Calcium / metabolism. Microglia / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenosine Triphosphate / pharmacology. Amyloid beta-Peptides / pharmacology. Analysis of Variance. Cells, Cultured. Drug Interactions. Fetus. Humans. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Platelet Activating Factor / pharmacology. Postmortem Changes. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15948178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-4012
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG18345
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Platelet Activating Factor; 0 / amyloid beta-protein (1-42); 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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2. Berry SA, Johns B, Shih C, Berry AA, Walker DG: The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Malawi. J Infect Dis; 2010 Sep 1;202 Suppl:S108-15
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  • [Title] The cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Malawi.
  • BACKGROUND: Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), a newly licensed rotavirus vaccine requiring 2 doses, may have the potential to save hundreds of thousands of lives in Africa.
  • Nations such as Malawi, where Rotarix is currently under phase III investigation, may nevertheless face difficult economic choices in considering vaccine adoption.
  • METHODS: The cost-effectiveness of implementing a Rotarix vaccine program in Malawi was estimated using published estimates of rotavirus burden, vaccine efficacy, and health care utilization and costs.
  • RESULTS: With 49.5% vaccine efficacy, a Rotarix program could avert 2582 deaths annually.
  • With GAVI Alliance cofinancing, adoption of Rotarix would be associated with a cost of $5.07 per disability-adjusted life-year averted.
  • With market pricing, Rotarix would be associated with a base case cost of $74.73 per disability-adjusted life-year averted.
  • Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, under-2 rotavirus mortality, and program cost of administering each dose.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adopting Rotarix would likely be highly cost-effective for Malawi, particularly with GAVI support.
  • This finding holds true across uncertainty ranges for key variables, including efficacy, for which data are becoming available.

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  • (PMID = 20684689.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6613
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of infectious diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI084854; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR025006; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1KL2RR025006-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Rotavirus Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3962285
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3. Tooyama I, Sato H, Yasuhara O, Kimura H, Konishi Y, Shen Y, Walker DG, Beach TG, Sue LI, Rogers J: Correlation of the expression level of C1q mRNA and the number of C1q-positive plaques in the Alzheimer Disease temporal cortex. analysis of C1q mrna and its protein using adjacent or nearby sections. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord; 2001 Jul-Aug;12(4):237-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation of the expression level of C1q mRNA and the number of C1q-positive plaques in the Alzheimer Disease temporal cortex. analysis of C1q mrna and its protein using adjacent or nearby sections.
  • We compared the expression level of C1q mRNA and the number of C1q-positive plaques in adjacent or nearby brain sections from Alzheimer disease (AD) and control cases.
  • Small blocks of temporal cortex were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 2 days at 4 degrees C.
  • After cryoprotection with solutions containing 10-20% glycerol and 2% dimethylsulfoxide, 40-microm sections were cut from the tissue blocks.
  • A section from each case was stained by immunohistochemistry using a C1q antibody, while RNA was purified from adjacent or nearby sections using a combination of proteinase K pretreatment followed by extraction using Trizol reagent.
  • The expression of C1q B chain mRNA was analyzed in these samples by the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • The intensities of the PCR products were measured by an image analyzer.
  • The expression of C1q B chain mRNA was significantly more abundant in AD than in control cases (p < 0.05).
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that C1q protein was localized in senile plaques in the AD brain.
  • The number of C1q-positive plaques correlated with the expression level of C1q gene (p < 0.05).
  • The present results suggest that C1q protein in senile plaques originates is endogenously produced in the AD brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Alzheimer Disease / pathology. Complement C1q / biosynthesis. Plaque, Amyloid / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Temporal Lobe / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Chemistry. Case-Control Studies. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 11351134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1420-8008
  • [Journal-full-title] Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AGO7367
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 80295-33-6 / Complement C1q
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4. Shahin Y, Khan JA, Samuel N, Chetter I: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors effect on endothelial dysfunction: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Atherosclerosis; 2011 May;216(1):7-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors effect on endothelial dysfunction: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
  • OBJECTIVE: Several studies have assessed the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) on endothelial dysfunction as measured by brachial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD).
  • We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate this effect in comparison to placebo or no treatment and to other antihypertensive agents.
  • METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched from 1996 to October 2010 on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effect of ACEIs on brachial FMD versus placebo or no treatment and ACEIs versus angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and β-blockers.
  • Data from included studies were pooled with use of random effects meta-analysis of the weighted mean change differences between the comparator groups.
  • Heterogeneity across studies was assessed with the I(2) statistic.
  • RESULTS: In 10 trials including 1129 patients, treatment with ACEIs (n = 498) versus placebo or no treatment (n = 503) significantly improved brachial FMD (pooled mean change difference 1.26%, 95% C.I.
  • 0.46-2.07, p = 0.002 with significant heterogeneity).
  • In 11 trials which included 805 patients, treatment with ACEIs (n = 264) had a significant effect on brachial FMD when compared with other antihypertensives (ARBs, CCBs and β-blockers) (n = 420) (pooled mean change difference 0.89%, 95% C.I.
  • 0.22-1.56, p = 0.009, I(2) = 83%, p for heterogeneity < 0.00001).
  • In 7 trials, treatment with ACEIs had no significant effect on FMD when compared with ARBs (pooled mean change difference = 0.21%, 95% C.I.
  • -0.24 to 0.66, p = 0.36, I(2) = 0%).
  • However, in 4 trials ACEIs significantly improved FMD when compared with CCBs (pooled mean change difference 2.15%, 95% C.I.
  • 0.55-3.75, p = 0.009, I(2) = 90%, p for heterogeneity < 0.00001).
  • When compared with β-blockers in 4 trials, ACEIs also had a significant effect on FMD (pooled mean change difference = 0.59%, 95% C.I.
  • 0.05-1.13, p = 0.03, I(2) = 34%, p for heterogeneity = 0.21).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that ACEIs improve brachial FMD which is a marker of endothelial function in patients with endothelial dysfunction caused by various conditions and are superior to CCBs and β-blockers.
  • There was no significant difference between ACEIs and ARBs effect on brachial FMD.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Brachial Artery / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / drug effects. Hypertension / drug therapy. Vasodilation / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Adult. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21411098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1484
  • [Journal-full-title] Atherosclerosis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Atherosclerosis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Antagonists; 0 / Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Calcium Channel Blockers
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5. Khan JA, Cao M, Kang BY, Liu Y, Mehta JL, Hermonat PL: Systemic human Netrin-1 gene delivery by adeno-associated virus type 8 alters leukocyte accumulation and atherogenesis in vivo. Gene Ther; 2011 May;18(5):437-44
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  • [Title] Systemic human Netrin-1 gene delivery by adeno-associated virus type 8 alters leukocyte accumulation and atherogenesis in vivo.
  • Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disorder of arteries.
  • Atherosclerotic plaque, in its early to intermediate stages, is composed largely of lipid-engorged foam cells.
  • These foam cells are derived from the trafficking of monocytes (Mo) into the arterial intima, attracted to the site by chemoattractants.
  • Given that foam cells are derived from the trafficking of Mo, the use of Netrin-1, an Mo chemorepellent, may be useful in limiting Mo accumulation and subsequent plaque formation.
  • To investigate the potential of Netrin-1 for limiting atherosclerosis, we systemically delivered its human (h) cDNA by adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8, single-stranded structure) delivery into low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and placed the animals on a high cholesterol diet (HCD).
  • Compared with control neomycin resistance (Neo) gene delivery/HCD, hNetrin-1 delivery resulted in a significant reduction in plaque formation, as determined by larger aortic lumen size, thinner intima-media thickness and lower blood velocity than the Neo/HCD control (all statistically significant).
  • Indices of monocyte/macrophage (Mo/MΦ) accumulation, CD68, integrin, alpha M (ITGAM) and egf-like module containing, mucin-like, hormone receptor-like 1 (EMR-1), were reduced in hNetrin-1/HCD-treated animal's aortas and spleens compared with Neo/HCD-treated animals.
  • Unexpectedly, CD25 and foxp3 (regulatory T cells (Tregs)) in the aorta were strongly upregulated.
  • This is the first time the Mo/MΦ chemorepellent approach, and specific Netrin-1 gene delivery, has been performed for the reduction of Mo/MΦ burden and atherosclerosis.
  • In addition, Netrin-1 has never before been linked to altered Treg levels.
  • These data strongly suggest that hNetrin-1 gene delivery can reduce Mo/MΦ accumulation, inflammation and subsequent plaque formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Dependovirus / genetics. Genetic Therapy / methods. Leukocytes / immunology. Nerve Growth Factors / genetics. Plaque, Atherosclerotic / prevention & control. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aorta / pathology. Blood Flow Velocity. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Cholesterol / blood. Gene Transfer Techniques. Inflammation / prevention & control. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Receptors, LDL / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21160531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5462
  • [Journal-full-title] Gene therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gene Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Receptors, LDL; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 158651-98-0 / netrin-1; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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6. Sunitha V, Reddy BM, Khan JA, Reddy MR: Groundwater Geochemistry in the Southeastern Part of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, with Special Reference to Fluoride Distribution and Its Impact on Health. J Environ Sci Eng; 2014 Apr;56(2):153-60
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  • [Title] Groundwater Geochemistry in the Southeastern Part of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, with Special Reference to Fluoride Distribution and Its Impact on Health.
  • Groundwater is the major water-source for drinking and irrigation in drought-prone southeastern part of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh (India).
  • Geochemically, the groundwater is characterized by alkaline nature, higher contents of Na+ over K+, Ca2+ over Mg2+ and Cl- over NO3- more or less equal amounts of HCO3- and SO4(2-), and fluoride 0.5 to 5.51 mg/L, that is ~2-5 times over the W.H.O. (2004) prescribed limit of 1.5 mg/L for drinking.
  • Due to high F in water, this region is severely affected by endemic fluorosis.
  • High fluoride content in groundwater is attributed to release of F- into water from F-bearing rocks in this tropical region during their weathering and partial evaporation of such water.
  • Use of this groundwater with high F- for drinking and irrigation for dry crops led to many health problems, viz. dental and skeletal-fluorosis, and deformation of bones, manifested in both children and adults.
  • This calls for effective regional-scale defluoridation of water in this part to bring to permissible limit prior to its use, besides adoption of methods like rainwater harvesting.
  • [MeSH-major] Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Fluorides / analysis. Fluorosis, Dental / etiology. Groundwater / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] India. Nitrates / analysis

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  • (PMID = 26563061.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science & engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrates; Q80VPU408O / Fluorides
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7. El Rabey H, Abdellatif KF, Ebrahim MK, Abbas N, Khan JA, Komor E: Phylogenetic relationships between Mediterranean and middle-Asian wild species of the genus Hordeum L. as revealed by biochemical and molecular markers. Pak J Biol Sci; 2013 Feb 15;16(4):168-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phylogenetic relationships between Mediterranean and middle-Asian wild species of the genus Hordeum L. as revealed by biochemical and molecular markers.
  • The phylogenetic relationships of 60 accessions of the genus Hordeum (29 Mediterranean and 20 middle-Asian wild accessions, together with nine American accessions and two of unknown origin), representing together nine species, were investigated by AFLP markers.
  • Three hundred sixty six AFLP fragments were used for studying the molecular genetic diversity among the studied species, 339 out of them were polymorphic.
  • Forty seven protein bands were obtained from the water soluble and the water insoluble seed storage protein by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of 18 accessions representing nine species (two accessions/species).
  • One band was common to all species and the other 46 bands were polymorphic.
  • The phylogenetic tree deduced from AFLP analysis is concordant to a large extent with that deduced from seed storage protein.
  • Highly significant cophenetic correlation coefficient was obtained between both AFLP (0.96) and seed storage protein (0.89) indicating the reliability of the results.
  • The studied taxa were clustered according to their genome type.
  • All Mediterranean and middle-Asian wild accessions could be integrated into the existing phylogenetic scheme.
  • [MeSH-major] Hordeum / genetics. Phylogeny
  • [MeSH-minor] Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis. Asia. DNA, Plant / genetics. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Genes, Plant. Genetic Markers. Mediterranean Region. Polymorphism, Genetic. Seeds / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 24171264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Plant; 0 / Genetic Markers
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8. Johnston HB, Oliveras E, Akhter S, Walker DG: Health system costs of menstrual regulation and care for abortion complications in Bangladesh. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health; 2010 Dec;36(4):197-204
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Health system costs of menstrual regulation and care for abortion complications in Bangladesh.
  • CONTEXT: Treatment of complications of unsafe abortion can be a significant financial drain on health system resources, particularly in developing countries.
  • In Bangladesh, menstrual regulation is provided by the government as a backup to contraception.
  • The comparison of economic costs of providing menstrual regulation care with those of providing treatment of abortion complications has implications for policy in Bangladesh and internationally.
  • METHODS: Data on incremental costs of providing menstrual regulation and care for abortion complications were collected through surveys of providers at 21 public-sector facilities in Bangladesh.
  • These data were entered into an abortion-oriented costing spreadsheet to estimate the health system costs of providing such services.
  • RESULTS: The incremental costs per case of providing menstrual regulation care in 2008 were 8-13% of those associated with treating severe abortion complications, depending on the level of care.
  • An estimated 263,688 menstrual regulation procedures were provided at public-sector facilities in 2008, with incremental costs estimated at US$2.2 million, and 70,098 women were treated for abortion-related complications in such facilities, with incremental costs estimated at US$1.6 million.
  • CONCLUSION: The provision of menstrual regulation averts unsafe abortion and associated maternal morbidity and mortality, and on a per case basis, saves scarce health system resources.
  • Increasing access to menstrual regulation would enable more women to obtain much-needed care and health system resources to be utilized more efficiently.
  • [MeSH-major] Abortion, Induced / adverse effects. Health Care Costs / statistics & numerical data. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Pregnancy Complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Bangladesh. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 21245026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1944-0405
  • [Journal-full-title] International perspectives on sexual and reproductive health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Sarfraz M, Khaliq T, Khan JA, Aslam B: Effect of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats. Saudi Pharm J; 2017 May;25(4):449-452
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of black pepper and ajwa seed on liver enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic Wister albino rats to show the preventive and ameliorating effects in hyperglycemic rats.
  • Rats were divided into 6 groups; normal control rats, diabetic control rats, glibenclamide treated rats, black pepper treated rats, ajwa seed treated rats and black pepper plus ajwa seed treated rats.
  • Hyperglycemia was induced in the treatments groups by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan at 150 mg/kg body weight.
  • The extracts were administered via oral incubation, doses were glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, black pepper 50 mg/kg, ajwa seed 500 mg/kg and their mixture 500 mg/kg body weight for a period of 8 weeks.
  • Serum glucose, AST, ALT and ALP were assayed using spectrophotometric method.
  • Results showed that ajwa seed and mixture significantly reduced glucose level.
  • AST level was significantly reduced by mixture treated group.
  • No significant difference was observed between different aqueous extract treated group in ALT and ALP level.
  • The study indicates that black pepper and ajwa seed extract to some extend normalized the glucose and liver enzyme activities in alloxanized diabetic rats.

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  • (PMID = 28579873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-0164
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Pharm J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ajwa seed / Alloxan / Black pepper / Diabetes / Liver enzymes
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10. Lee E, Feigley CE, Khan JA, Hussey JR: The effect of temperature differences on the distribution of an airborne contaminant in an experimental room. Ann Occup Hyg; 2006 Jul;50(5):527-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of temperature differences on the distribution of an airborne contaminant in an experimental room.
  • Estimating exposure to contaminants emitted into workroom air is essential for worker protection.
  • Although contaminant concentrations are often not spatially uniform within workrooms, many methods for estimating exposure do not adequately account for this variability.
  • Here the impact of temperature differences within a room on spatial contaminant distribution was studied.
  • Tracer gas (99.5% propylene) concentrations were monitored automatically at 144 sampling points with a photoionization detector.
  • One wall was chosen to represent a building's external wall and was heated or cooled to simulate summer or winter conditions.
  • Experiments were preformed at two flow rates (5.5 and 3.3 m(3) min(-1)) and six thermal conditions (isothermal, three summer conditions and two winter conditions).
  • For 5.5 m(3) min(-1) and all thermal conditions, the coefficient of variation (CV) ranged from 0.34 to 0.45 and the normalized average concentrations were similar.
  • For 3.3 m(3) min(-1), winter conditions produced greater spatial variability of concentration (CV = 0.72 and 1.10) than isothermal or summer conditions (CV range = 0.29-0.34).
  • Tests simulating winter conditions suggest that the resulting stable temperature structure inhibited the dilution of the tracer and enhanced its segregation in the lower portion of the room, especially for the lower flow rate (3.3 m(3) min(-1)).
  • Therefore, not explicitly addressing thermal effect in exposure modeling may impact the estimated accuracy and precision when used for rooms that are non-isothermal and not well mixed.
  • These findings also have implications for air monitoring.
  • Dispersion patterns for different thermal conditions were found to be substantially different, even when the mean concentrations were nearly the same.
  • Thus, monitoring data from a single season should not be taken as representative of the entire year, when summer and winter conditions create temperature gradients in a room.
  • [MeSH-major] Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis. Occupational Exposure / analysis. Temperature
  • [MeSH-minor] Air Movements. Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis. Environmental Monitoring / methods. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16611801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4878
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of occupational hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Occup Hyg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / 1 R01 OH07626
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants, Occupational
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