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Items 1 to 10 of about 105
1. Rogers HH, Bergman CM, Griffiths-Jones S: The evolution of tRNA genes in Drosophila. Genome Biol Evol; 2010 Jul 12;2:467-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The evolution of tRNA genes in Drosophila.
  • The structure and function of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes have been extensively studied for several decades, yet the general mechanisms controlling tRNA gene family evolution remain unclear, primarily because previous phylogenetics-based methods fail to distinguish between paralogs and orthologs that are highly similar in sequence.
  • We have developed a system for identifying orthologs of tRNAs using flanking sequences to identify regions of conserved synteny and used it to annotate sets of orthologous tRNA genes across the 12 sequenced species of Drosophila.
  • These data have allowed us to place the gains and losses of individual tRNA genes on each branch of the Drosophila tree and estimate rates of tRNA gene turnover.
  • Our results show extensive rearrangement of the Drosophila tRNA gene complement over the last 60 My.
  • We estimate a combined average rate of 2.18 +/- 0.10 tRNA gene gains and losses per million years across the Drosophila lineage.
  • We have identified 192 tRNAs that are ancestral to the genus, of which 157 are "core" tRNAs conserved in at least 11 of 12 extant species.
  • We provide evidence that the core set of tRNA genes encode a nearly complete set of anticodons and have different properties from other "peripheral" tRNA genes, such as preferential location outside large tRNA clusters and higher sequence conservation.
  • We also demonstrate that tRNA isoacceptor and alloacceptor changes by anticodon shifts have occurred several times in Drosophila, annotating 16 such events in functional tRNAs during the evolution of the genus.

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  • (PMID = 20624748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-6653
  • [Journal-full-title] Genome biology and evolution
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genome Biol Evol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticodon; 9014-25-9 / RNA, Transfer
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997554
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2. Blumenstiel JP, Chen X, He M, Bergman CM: An age-of-allele test of neutrality for transposable element insertions. Genetics; 2014 Feb;196(2):523-38
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  • [Title] An age-of-allele test of neutrality for transposable element insertions.
  • How natural selection acts to limit the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) in genomes has been of interest to evolutionary biologists for many years.
  • To describe TE dynamics in populations, previous studies have used models of transposition-selection equilibrium that assume a constant rate of transposition.
  • However, since TE invasions are known to happen in bursts through time, this assumption may not be reasonable.
  • Here we propose a test of neutrality for TE insertions that does not rely on the assumption of a constant transposition rate.
  • We consider the case of TE insertions that have been ascertained from a single haploid reference genome sequence.
  • By conditioning on the age of an individual TE insertion allele (inferred by the number of unique substitutions that have occurred within the particular TE sequence since insertion), we determine the probability distribution of the insertion allele frequency in a population sample under neutrality.
  • Taking models of varying population size into account, we then evaluate predictions of our model against allele frequency data from 190 retrotransposon insertions sampled from North American and African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Using this nonequilibrium neutral model, we are able to explain ∼ 80% of the variance in TE insertion allele frequencies based on age alone.
  • Controlling for both nonequilibrium dynamics of transposition and host demography, we provide evidence for negative selection acting against most TEs as well as for positive selection acting on a small subset of TEs.
  • Our work establishes a new framework for the analysis of the evolutionary forces governing large insertion mutations like TEs, gene duplications, or other copy number variants.

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  • (PMID = 24336751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-2631
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genetics
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P20 GM103638; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P20GM103638
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Transposable Elements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3914624
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Drosophila melanogaster / genome evolution / population genomics / test of neutrality / transposable elements (TEs)
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3. Down TA, Bergman CM, Su J, Hubbard TJ: Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Comput Biol; 2007 Jan 19;3(1):e7
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  • [Title] Large-scale discovery of promoter motifs in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • A key step in understanding gene regulation is to identify the repertoire of transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) that form the building blocks of promoters and other regulatory elements.
  • Identifying these experimentally is very laborious, and the number of TFBMs discovered remains relatively small, especially when compared with the hundreds of transcription factor genes predicted in metazoan genomes.
  • We have used a recently developed statistical motif discovery approach, NestedMICA, to detect candidate TFBMs from a large set of Drosophila melanogaster promoter regions.
  • Of the 120 motifs inferred in our initial analysis, 25 were statistically significant matches to previously reported motifs, while 87 appeared to be novel.
  • Analysis of sequence conservation and motif positioning suggested that the great majority of these discovered motifs are predictive of functional elements in the genome.
  • Many motifs showed associations with specific patterns of gene expression in the D. melanogaster embryo, and we were able to obtain confident annotation of expression patterns for 25 of our motifs, including eight of the novel motifs.
  • The motifs are available through Tiffin, a new database of DNA sequence motifs.
  • We have discovered many new motifs that are overrepresented in D. melanogaster promoter regions, and offer several independent lines of evidence that these are novel TFBMs.
  • Our motif dictionary provides a solid foundation for further investigation of regulatory elements in Drosophila, and demonstrates techniques that should be applicable in other species.
  • We suggest that further improvements in computational motif discovery should narrow the gap between the set of known motifs and the total number of transcription factors in metazoan genomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Mapping / methods. Drosophila Proteins / genetics. Drosophila melanogaster / genetics. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Motifs. Animals. Base Sequence. Binding Sites. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Binding

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  • (PMID = 17238282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-7358
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS computational biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Comput. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 077198; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1779301
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4. Dermitzakis ET, Bergman CM, Clark AG: Tracing the evolutionary history of Drosophila regulatory regions with models that identify transcription factor binding sites. Mol Biol Evol; 2003 May;20(5):703-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tracing the evolutionary history of Drosophila regulatory regions with models that identify transcription factor binding sites.
  • Much of evolutionary change is mediated at the level of gene expression, yet our understanding of regulatory evolution remains unsatisfying.
  • In light of recent data indicating that transcription factor binding sites undergo substantial turnover between species, we attempt to quantify the process of binding site turnover in regulatory regions of well-studied genes controlling embryonic patterning in Drosophila.
  • We examine polymorphism and divergence data in Drosophila melanogaster and four related species from regulatory regions of five early development genes for which functional binding sites have been identified.
  • This analysis reveals that Drosophila regulatory regions exhibit patterns of variation consistent with functional constraint.
  • We develop a novel approach to binding site prediction which we use to characterize the process of binding site divergence in regulatory regions.
  • This method uses sets of known binding sites to construct a model that predicts transcription factor specificity and bootstrap sampling to derive significance levels.
  • This approach allows appropriate significance levels to be determined even in the face of skewed base composition in the background sequence.
  • Using this approach, we show that, although functional elements exhibit conservation of sequence, there is substantial potential to gain new functional elements within the regulatory regions.
  • Our results show that application of models that predict transcription factor binding sites can yield insights into the process and dynamics of binding site evolution within regulatory regions.
  • [MeSH-major] Drosophila / genetics. Evolution, Molecular. Genes, Regulator / genetics. Models, Genetic. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Binding Sites / genetics. Databases, Nucleic Acid. Likelihood Functions. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Alignment. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 12679540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0737-4038
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology and evolution
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Evol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY184070/ AY184071/ AY184072/ AY184073/ AY184074/ AY184075/ AY184076/ AY184077/ AY184078/ AY184079/ AY184080/ AY184081/ AY184082/ AY184083/ AY184084/ AY184085/ AY184086/ AY184087/ AY184088/ AY184089/ AY184090/ AY184091/ AY184092/ AY184093/ AY184094/ AY184095/ AY184096/ AY184097/ AY184098/ AY184099/ AY184100/ AY184101/ AY184102/ AY184103/ AY184104/ AY184105/ AY184106
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Haeussler M, Joly JS: When needles look like hay: how to find tissue-specific enhancers in model organism genomes. Dev Biol; 2011 Feb 15;350(2):239-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] When needles look like hay: how to find tissue-specific enhancers in model organism genomes.
  • A major prerequisite for the investigation of tissue-specific processes is the identification of cis-regulatory elements.
  • No generally applicable technique is available to distinguish them from any other type of genomic non-coding sequence.
  • Therefore, researchers often have to identify these elements by elaborate in vivo screens, testing individual regions until the right one is found.
  • Here, based on many examples from the literature, we summarize how functional enhancers have been isolated from other elements in the genome and how they have been characterized in transgenic animals.
  • Covering computational and experimental studies, we provide an overview of the global properties of cis-regulatory elements, like their specific interactions with promoters and target gene distances.
  • We describe conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) and their internal structure, nucleotide composition, binding site clustering and overlap, with a special focus on developmental enhancers.
  • Conflicting data and unresolved questions on the nature of these elements are highlighted.
  • Our comprehensive overview of the experimental shortcuts that have been found in the different model organism communities and the new field of high-throughput assays should help during the preparation phase of a screen for enhancers.
  • The review is accompanied by a list of general guidelines for such a project.
  • [MeSH-major] Enhancer Elements, Genetic. Genes, Regulator. Genome. Organ Specificity
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Animals. Animals, Genetically Modified. Base Sequence. High-Throughput Screening Assays. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21130761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-564X
  • [Journal-full-title] Developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dev. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Quesneville H, Bergman CM, Andrieu O, Autard D, Nouaud D, Ashburner M, Anxolabehere D: Combined evidence annotation of transposable elements in genome sequences. PLoS Comput Biol; 2005 Jul;1(2):166-75
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  • [Title] Combined evidence annotation of transposable elements in genome sequences.
  • Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile, repetitive sequences that make up significant fractions of metazoan genomes.
  • Despite their near ubiquity and importance in genome and chromosome biology, most efforts to annotate TEs in genome sequences rely on the results of a single computational program, RepeatMasker.
  • In contrast, recent advances in gene annotation indicate that high-quality gene models can be produced from combining multiple independent sources of computational evidence.
  • To elevate the quality of TE annotations to a level comparable to that of gene models, we have developed a combined evidence-model TE annotation pipeline, analogous to systems used for gene annotation, by integrating results from multiple homology-based and de novo TE identification methods.
  • As proof of principle, we have annotated "TE models" in Drosophila melanogaster Release 4 genomic sequences using the combined computational evidence derived from RepeatMasker, BLASTER, TBLASTX, all-by-all BLASTN, RECON, TE-HMM and the previous Release 3.1 annotation.
  • Our system is designed for use with the Apollo genome annotation tool, allowing automatic results to be curated manually to produce reliable annotations.
  • The euchromatic TE fraction of D. melanogaster is now estimated at 5.3% (cf.
  • 3.86% in Release 3.1), and we found a substantially higher number of TEs (n = 6,013) than previously identified (n = 1,572).
  • Most of the new TEs derive from small fragments of a few hundred nucleotides long and highly abundant families not previously annotated (e.g., INE-1).
  • We also estimated that 518 TE copies (8.6%) are inserted into at least one other TE, forming a nest of elements.
  • The pipeline allows rapid and thorough annotation of even the most complex TE models, including highly deleted and/or nested elements such as those often found in heterochromatic sequences.
  • Our pipeline can be easily adapted to other genome sequences, such as those of the D. melanogaster heterochromatin or other species in the genus Drosophila.


7. Richardson MF, Weinert LA, Welch JJ, Linheiro RS, Magwire MM, Jiggins FM, Bergman CM: Population genomics of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Genet; 2012;8(12):e1003129
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  • [Title] Population genomics of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Wolbachia are maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria, commonly found in arthropods, which are able to manipulate the reproduction of their host in order to maximise their transmission.
  • The evolutionary history of endosymbionts like Wolbachia can be revealed by integrating information on infection status in natural populations with patterns of sequence variation in Wolbachia and host mitochondrial genomes.
  • Here we use whole-genome resequencing data from 290 lines of Drosophila melanogaster from North America, Europe, and Africa to predict Wolbachia infection status, estimate relative cytoplasmic genome copy number, and reconstruct Wolbachia and mitochondrial genome sequences.
  • Overall, 63% of Drosophila strains were predicted to be infected with Wolbachia by our in silico analysis pipeline, which shows 99% concordance with infection status determined by diagnostic PCR.
  • Complete Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes show congruent phylogenies, consistent with strict vertical transmission through the maternal cytoplasm and imperfect transmission of Wolbachia.
  • Bayesian phylogenetic analysis reveals that the most recent common ancestor of all Wolbachia and mitochondrial genomes in D. melanogaster dates to around 8,000 years ago.
  • We find evidence for a recent global replacement of ancestral Wolbachia and mtDNA lineages, but our data suggest that the derived wMel lineage arose several thousand years ago, not in the 20th century as previously proposed.
  • Our data also provide evidence that this global replacement event is incomplete and is likely to be one of several similar incomplete replacement events that have occurred since the out-of-Africa migration that allowed D. melanogaster to colonize worldwide habitats.
  • This study provides a complete genomic analysis of the evolutionary mode and temporal dynamics of the D. melanogaster-Wolbachia symbiosis, as well as important resources for further analyses of the impact of Wolbachia on host biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Drosophila melanogaster. Metagenomics. Symbiosis. Wolbachia
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bayes Theorem. Evolution, Molecular. Genetic Variation. Genome, Mitochondrial. Haplotypes. Phylogeny


8. Miller DE, Cook KR, Yeganeh Kazemi N, Smith CB, Cockrell AJ, Hawley RS, Bergman CM: Rare recombination events generate sequence diversity among balancer chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2016 Mar 8;113(10):E1352-61
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  • [Title] Rare recombination events generate sequence diversity among balancer chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster.
  • Multiply inverted balancer chromosomes that suppress exchange with their homologs are an essential part of the Drosophila melanogaster genetic toolkit.
  • Despite their widespread use, the organization of balancer chromosomes has not been characterized at the molecular level, and the degree of sequence variation among copies of balancer chromosomes is unknown.
  • To map inversion breakpoints and study potential diversity in descendants of a structurally identical balancer chromosome, we sequenced a panel of laboratory stocks containing the most widely used X chromosome balancer, First Multiple 7 (FM7).
  • We mapped the locations of FM7 breakpoints to precise euchromatic coordinates and identified the flanking sequence of breakpoints in heterochromatic regions.
  • Analysis of SNP variation revealed megabase-scale blocks of sequence divergence among currently used FM7 stocks.
  • We present evidence that this divergence arose through rare double-crossover events that replaced a female-sterile allele of the singed gene (sn(X2)) on FM7c with a sequence from balanced chromosomes.
  • We propose that although double-crossover events are rare in individual crosses, many FM7c chromosomes in the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center have lost sn(X2) by this mechanism on a historical timescale.
  • Finally, we characterize the original allele of the Bar gene (B(1)) that is carried on FM7, and validate the hypothesis that the origin and subsequent reversion of the B(1) duplication are mediated by unequal exchange.
  • Our results reject a simple nonrecombining, clonal mode for the laboratory evolution of balancer chromosomes and have implications for how balancer chromosomes should be used in the design and interpretation of genetic experiments in Drosophila.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Breakpoints. Drosophila melanogaster / genetics. Genetic Variation. Recombination, Genetic. X Chromosome / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Chromosome Breakage. Chromosome Inversion. Chromosome Mapping. Crossing Over, Genetic. Female. Heterochromatin / genetics. Male. Models, Genetic. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods

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  • (PMID = 26903656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIH HHS / OD / P40 OD018537; United States / NIH HHS / OD / P40 OD018537
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterochromatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4790991
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; balancer chromosome / duplication / inversion / recombination / unequal exchange
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9. Ranz JM, Maurin D, Chan YS, von Grotthuss M, Hillier LW, Roote J, Ashburner M, Bergman CM: Principles of genome evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster species group. PLoS Biol; 2007 Jun;5(6):e152
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  • [Title] Principles of genome evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster species group.
  • That closely related species often differ by chromosomal inversions was discovered by Sturtevant and Plunkett in 1926.
  • Our knowledge of how these inversions originate is still very limited, although a prevailing view is that they are facilitated by ectopic recombination events between inverted repetitive sequences.
  • The availability of genome sequences of related species now allows us to study in detail the mechanisms that generate interspecific inversions.
  • We have analyzed the breakpoint regions of the 29 inversions that differentiate the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species, D. simulans and D. yakuba, and reconstructed the molecular events that underlie their origin.
  • Experimental and computational analysis revealed that the breakpoint regions of 59% of the inversions (17/29) are associated with inverted duplications of genes or other nonrepetitive sequences.
  • In only two cases do we find evidence for inverted repetitive sequences in inversion breakpoints.
  • We propose that the presence of inverted duplications associated with inversion breakpoint regions is the result of staggered breaks, either isochromatid or chromatid, and that this, rather than ectopic exchange between inverted repetitive sequences, is the prevalent mechanism for the generation of inversions in the melanogaster species group.
  • Outgroup analysis also revealed evidence for widespread breakpoint recycling.
  • Lastly, we have found that expression domains in D. melanogaster may be disrupted in D. yakuba, bringing into question their potential adaptive significance.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Evolution. Chromosome Inversion. Drosophila / genetics. Genome, Insect
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chromosome Breakage. Gene Duplication. Molecular Sequence Data

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  • (PMID = 17550304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-7885
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF569486/ EF569487/ EF569488/ EF569489/ EF569490/ EF569491/ EF569492/ EF569493/ EF569494/ EF569495/ EF569496/ EF569497/ EF569498/ EF569499/ EF569500/ EF569501/ EF569502/ EF569503/ EF569504/ EF569505/ EF569506/ EF569507/ EF569508/ EF569509/ EF569510/ EF569511/ EF569512/ EF569513/ EF569514/ EF569515/ EF569516/ EF569517/ EF569518/ EF569519/ EF569520/ EF569521/ EF569522/ EF569523/ EF569524/ EF569525/ EF569526/ EF569527/ EF569528/ EF569529/ EF569530/ EF569531/ EF569532/ EF569533/ EF569534/ EF569535/ EF569536/ EF569537/ EF569538/ EF569539/ EF569540/ EF569541/ EF569542/ EF569543/ EF569544/ EF569545/ EF569546/ EF569547/ EF569548/ EF569549/ EF569550/ EF569551/ EF569552/ EF569553/ EF569554
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G8225539
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1885836
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10. Mescher MF, Curtsinger JM, Agarwal P, Casey KA, Gerner M, Hammerbeck CD, Popescu F, Xiao Z: Signals required for programming effector and memory development by CD8+ T cells. Immunol Rev; 2006 Jun;211:81-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signals required for programming effector and memory development by CD8+ T cells.
  • Stimulation of naïve CD8+ T cells with antigen and costimulation results in proliferation and weak clonal expansion, but the cells fail to develop effector functions and are tolerant long term.
  • Initiation of the program leading to the strong expansion and development of effector functions and memory requires a third signal that can be provided by interleukin-12 (IL-12) or interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha).
  • CD4+ T cells condition dendritic cells (DCs) to effectively present antigen to CD8+ T cells, and this conditioning involves, at least in part, CD40-dependent upregulation of the production of these signal 3 cytokines by the DCs.
  • Upon being fully activated, the cytotoxic T lymphocytes develop activation-induced non-responsiveness (AINR), a form of split anergy characterized by an inability to produce IL-2 to support continued expansion.
  • If antigen remains present, IL-2 provided by CD4+ T cells can reverse AINR to allow further expansion of the effector population and conversion to responsive memory cells following antigen clearance.
  • If IL-2 or potentially other proliferative signals are not available, persistent antigen holds cells in the AINR state and prevents the development of a responsive memory population.
  • Thus, in addition to antigen and costimulation, CD8+ T cells require cytokine signals at distinct stages of the response to be programmed for optimal generation of effector and memory populations.
  • [MeSH-major] CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Immunologic Memory / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Humans. Interferon-alpha / immunology. Interleukin-12 / immunology. Signal Transduction / immunology

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  • (PMID = 16824119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-2896
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunological reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunol. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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